Hardwood regeneration related to overstory shortleaf pine basal area and site index in Arkansas and eastern OklahomaThis article is part of a larger document. View the larger document here.
Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) grows in association with many other woody species, particularly understory hardwoods, which compete with it, limiting its productivity. Along with other species, sweet-gum (Liquidambar styracifua L.) is a major competitor on better-quality sites but decreases rapidly in importance as pine site index (SI) decreases and pine overstory increases.