Survey and Detection of Endophytic Fungi in Lolium Germ Plasm by Direct Staining and Aphid Assays
Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes were detected in 28 of 85 accessions from five of eight species in a collection of Lolium germ plasm. Comparative descriptions of endophytic mycelium in seeds of L. multiflorum, L. perenne, L. persicum, L. rigidum, and L. temulentum revealed morphological characteristics distinguishing endophytes in each host species. Most endophyte-infected accessions originated from Eurasia, particularly from Middle Eastern countries. Endophyte incidence and infection percentages varied widely with host species and geographic origin. Feeding tests with Diuruphis noxia were useful in detecting endophyte-infected accessions of perennial ryegrass.