Visitor diversity on national forests-how should managers respond?
Historically, Anglo Americans have been the primary clientèle at nature-based outdoor recreation areas in the United States (Chavez 2001, Dunn et al. 2002). Goldsmith (1 994) highlighted the lack of racial and ethnic diversity among National Park visitors. Citing a Texas A&M study, Goldsmith (1994) reported that less than 1 % of car visitors to Yosemite National Park were African American and less than 4% of bus riders to the park were African American. Visitation by Hispanics at Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona was similar to that for Blacks. Natural resource managers and policy makers also have been mostly Anglo. Not surprisingly, the resulting management "culture" has privileged traditional natural resource values and beliefs rooted in White, middle American culture (Deluca 1999, Chavez 2001 ).