Forest Ecosystem services and development pressures
Ecosystem services from forests on private lands are often under-produced because landowners bear the cost of restoring, preserving, and managing their lands to produce ecological services that benefit all members of the community or larger society. Over the last two decades, a variety of federal and state programs have applied a combination of regulations, extension, and incentives to encourage private landowners to implement forest management, conservation, and restoration activities. Most of these programs have relied on payments from the government to landowners (usually in the form of cost-shares) to encourage specific types of land management. Although programs that subsidize tree specifically designed to enhance the production of ecosystem services such as water and air quality and biodiversity conservation are newer and their impacts uncertain.