Soils, peatlands, and biomonitoring
Soils are three-dimensional (3D) natural bodies conSlStmg of unconsolidated mineral and organic materials that form a continuous blanket over most of the earth's land sUlface. At all sca les of measurements, soils are exceedingly complex and variable in biological, chemical, physical, mineralogical, and electromagnetic properties. These properties influence the propagation velocity, attenuation, and penetration depth of electromagnetic energy, and the effectiveness of ground penetrating radar (GPR). Knowledge of soils and soil properties is therefore us eful, and often essential, both in the design and operation of GPR surveys. In this chapter, soil properties that influence the use of GPR are discussed. Ground penetrating radar soil su itability maps are introduced. These maps can aid GPR users who are un£1miliar with soils in assessing the likely penetration depth and relative effectiveness of GPR within project areas. T his chapter cites studies that have used GPR to investigate soils. Also discussed are the uses of GPR to measure root biomass, distribution and architecture, and detect internal defects in trees.