State of pine decline in the southeastern United States
Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly eroded, or are not managed. The purposes of this technical note are (1) to describe the symptomology and extent of pine decline in the southeastern United States; (2) to describe its connection with root disease, resource stress, and silviculture; and (3) to summarize the consensus opinion of scientists and land managers during a workshop sponsored by the US Army Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program regarding the scope of this syndrome and the best research avenues to counter its potential effect on the sustainability of southern pine forests.