Influence of Tylenchorhynchus ewingi on growth of loblolly pine seedlings, and host suitability of legumes and small grains

Abstract

Tylenchorhynchus ewingi, a stunt nematode, causes severe injury to slash pine seedlings and has been recently associated with stunting and chlorosis of loblolly pine seedlings at some forest tree nurseries in southern USA. Experiments confirmed that loblolly pine is a host for T. ewingi, and that the nematode is capable of causing severe damage to root systems. Initial population densities as low as 60 nematodes (100 cm3 soil)-1 were sufficient to damage the root systems of loblolly pine seedlings. Populations of T. ewingi increased on pine from two- to 16-fold, depending on the initial population density. Evaluations of various cover crops used in southern forest tree nurseries indicated that legumes, rye and several varieties of sorghum were excellent hosts for T. ewingi. Other small grains such as rye grass, oats and wheat were poorer hosts. A cultivar of pearl millet was a non-host for T. ewingi, and a cultivar of brown top millet appeared to be either a very poor host or a non-host. Nurseries that have seedling production losses caused by T. ewingi should consider rotating with non-host cover crops such as pearl millet or leaving fields fallow as part of their pest management programme.

  • Citation: Fraedrich, Stephen W.; Cram, Michelle M.; Handoo, Zafar A.; Zarnoch, Stanley J. 2012. Influence of Tylenchorhynchus ewingi on growth of loblolly pine seedlings, and host suitability of legumes and small grains. Nematology 14(4):417-425.
  • Keywords: cover crops, forest tree nursery, nematode control, pest management, stunt nematode
  • Posted Date: December 14, 2012
  • Modified Date: December 14, 2012
  • Requesting Print Publications

    Publication requests are subject to availability. Fiscal responsibility limits the hardcopies of publications we produce and distribute. Electronic versions of publications may be downloaded, distributed and printed.

    Please make any requests at pubrequest@fs.fed.us.

    Publication Notes

    • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
    • Our online publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact the SRS webmaster if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.
    • To view this article, download the latest version of Adobe Acrobat Reader.