Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality
Constructed wetland (CW) and constructed pond (CP) are commonly utilized for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from stormwater. This study characterized shallow groundwater quality for pre- and post-CW and CP system conditions using data from monitoring wells. Results showed that the average concentrations of groundwater phosphorus (P) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW but increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average concentrations of groundwater total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonium (NH4+) increased from pre-CW (or CP) to post-CW (or CP), whereas the average concentrations of groundwater arsenic (As), chromium, nickel, and zinc (Zn) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW regardless of the well locations. Variations of groundwater cadmium, copper, and Zn concentrations were larger in pre-CP than in post-CP and had a tendency to decrease from pre-CP to post-CP. In general, the average concentrations of groundwater aluminum and manganese decreased and of groundwater calcium, iron, magnesium, and sodium increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average values of water levels (depth from the ground surface), redox potential, and conductance decreased and of chloride and sulfate (SO4-2 ) increased after the wetland and pond were constructed regardless of the well locations. Results further revealed that there were significant differences (α = 00.05) between the pre- and post-CW (or CP) for redox potential, water level, and As. This study suggests that the CW–CP system had discernible effects on some of the shallow groundwater quality constituents. This information is very useful for fully estimating overall performance of stormwater treatment with the CW–CP system.