Lichens in Puerto Rico: an ecosystem approach
This work presents basic information on tropical lichenology. It also describes general aspects about the ecology and biodiversity of these organisms in eight forest ecosystems present along an elevational gradient in northeastern Puerto Rico. These ecosystems consist of elfin woodlands, palo colorado, sierra palm, tabonuco, lowland moist, dry, mangrove, and Pterocarpus forests. Lichen communities are mainly described in terms of general ecological attributes (e.g., species richness, common species, etc.). Basic information about the environment and vegetation found in these forests is also provided. The information presented is supplemented with field and microscopic photographs of species and their habitats.