Is tree loss associated with cardiovascular-disease risk in the Women's Health Initiative? A natural experiment
Data from the Women's Health Initiative were used to quantify the relationship between the loss of trees to an invasive forest pest—the emerald ash borer—and cardiovascular disease. We estimated semi- parametric Cox proportional hazards model of time to cardiovascular disease, adjusting for confounders. We defined the incidence of cardiovascular disease as acute myocardial infarction requiring overnight hospitalization, silent MI determined from serial electrocardiograms, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke,or death from coronary heart disease. Women living in a county infested with emerald ash borer had an increased risk of cardiovascular disease(HR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.20–1.31).