Modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride in TBAA/DMSO mixed solvent under catalyst-free conditions
Homogeneous modification of cellulose with succinic anhydride was performed using tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixed solvent. The molar ratio of succinic anhydride (SA) to free hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose units (AGU), TBAA dosage, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated. The highest degree of substitution (DS) value of 1.191 was obtained in a 10 wt% TBAA/DMSO mixed solvent at 60 C for 60 min, and the molar ratio of SA/AGU was 6/1. The molar ratio of SA/AGU and the TBAA dosage showed a significant influence on the reaction. The succinoylated cellulose was characterized by ATR-FTIR, TGA, XRD, solid state CP/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy (CP/MAS 13C NMR), and SEM. Moreover, the modified cellulose was applied for the adsorption of Cu2+ and Cd2+, and both the DS values of modified cellulose and pH of the heavy metal ion solutions affected the adsorption capacity of succinylated cellulose. The highest capacity for Cu2+ and Cd2+ adsorption was 42.05 mg/g and 49.0 mg/g, respectively.