Interactions between ethanol, syn-2,3-hexanediol, 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, and 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one lures on trap catches of hardwood longhorn beetles in southeastern united states
The effectiveness of a four-component “super lure” consisting of ethanol (E) and the cerambycid pheromones syn-2,3-hexanediol (D6), racemic 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one (K6), and racemic 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one (K8) on trap catches of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) was determined in southeast United States with seven trapping experiments in 2011–2013. We captured 74 species of longhorn beetles in our three-year study. Ethanol significantly increased the mean catches of seven species and increased the number of cerambycid species detected. Traps with the “super lure” were effective for 8 of 13 species of Cerambycidae previously shown to be attracted to binary combinations of ethanol plus one of the three pheromones. However, the “super lure” was less effective for the remaining five species with catch reductions of 40–90% compared with combinations of ethanol and one or two of the pheromones. For example, K6?+?K8 lures reduced catches of Anelaphus villosus (F.) in traps with E?+?D6 by 90%. Similarly, catches of Anelaphus pumilus (Newman) in traps with E?+?K6?+?D6 were reduced by 50% with the addition of K8. Catches of K'iana cincta (Drury) in traps with K6?+?K8 lures were interrupted by D6, an effect negated by the addition of ethanol. Given the interruptive effects on trap catches of some species when lures are combined in a single trap, developing optimal lure blends to maximize detection efficacy will be a challenge for managers of detection programs for non-native invasive species of longhorn beetles.