Multiple-lure surveillance trapping for ips bark beetles, monochamus longhorn beetles, and halyomorpha halys (hemiptera: pentatomidae)
Invasions by insects introduced via international trade continue to cause worldwide impacts. Surveillance programs using traps baited with host volatiles and pheromones can detect incursions of nonnative species. We report on two experiments executed to determine if attractants for several insect species can be combined without compromising trap catches and detection ability of target species. In the first experiment, we tested the effect of bark beetle pheromones (plus α-pinene) and trap contact with foliage on trap catches of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in traps baited with a mixture of bisabolenes and methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate. Trap capture of H. halys adults was greater in traps not in contact with foliage, and the bark beetle pheromones ipsenol and ipsdienol did not affect trap capture of H. halys. In the second experiment, we tested the effects of multi-lure interactions among the primary host attractants α-pinene and ethanol, and the pheromones monochamol, ipsenol, ipsdienol, lanierone, and the H. halys compounds, on trap captures of various forest and agricultural insect pests. Specifically, we targeted Monochamus spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Ips spp. (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and H. halys. We found that a combination of all lures did not catch significantly lower numbers of Monochamus carolinensis Olivier, Monochamus scutellatus Say (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and Ips pini Say (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) than lure combinations missing components although removal of both lanierone and ipsdienol somewhat increased catches of Ips randicollis Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Our results support the use of traps baited with a full combination of these attractants in surveillance programs. This should reduce costs and increase detection rates of a wider range of conifer forest pests and H. halys.