Development of electronic-nose technologies for early disease detection based on microbial dysbiosis.
A new frontier in clinical disease diagnostics was quietly launched by a series of recent discoveries of dysbiosis-related phenomena. These developments make important connections between the metabolic activities of resident microbes and human diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated that biochemical mechanisms leading to disease development involve not only pathogenesis, but also interactions between microbiota in the oral cavity, lungs, and gut, as well as the microbial metabolites they produce, and the human immune system. Microbial dysbiosis (MD) or changes in commensal microbiota diversity and composition, often modulate disease development by at least two different mechanisms, including disease-induced dysbiosis and alterations in gut microbiota (GM), caused by abiotic and exogenous factors (diet, drug use, and environment). This paper summarizes recent evidence demonstrating how electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies with multi-sensor arrays and chemical-analysis capabilities could potentially be used for early diagnosis of certain diseases by identifying a new category of VOC-biomarker metabolites, called dysbiosis-related disease biomarkers (DRDBs). DRDBs are produced in specific locations of the body due to dysbiosis associated with specific diseases. Recent advances in e-nose technologies offer new tools for exploiting the common occurrence of MD for noninvasive early disease detection.