Colonization and development of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in bolts of a native pine host and six species of pine grown in the southeastern United States
Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is a major exotic pest of pines (Pinus spp.) in the Southern Hemisphere and has become established in northeastern North America. We investigated the suitability of bolts of six economically and ecologically important U.S. pine species grown in the southeastern United States, including eastern white (P. strobus L.), loblolly (P. taeda L.), longleaf (P. palustris Miller), shortleaf (P. echinata Miller), slash (P. elliottii Engelmann), and Virginia (P. virginiana Miller) pines and its native Eurasian host, Scots pine (P. sylvestris L.), for S. noctilio reproduction. The properties of wood and resin of different pine species were also analyzed for possible correlates to S. noctilio’s colonization and reproductive success on bolts. Sirex noctilio completed development on bolts within 4 mo of oviposition activities. Among the seven pine species, S. noctilio completed development in eastern white, Scots, and Virginia pines. Females tended to drill less on bolts with higher area and density of resin canals, as well as higher first 10-ring and radial stripspecific gravity. The resin of eastern white and Virginia pines had distinct extractive profiles, and eastern white pine may have two 3-carene chemotypes in the southeastern region.