Estimating the value of forests for provisioning non-timber forest products to market: concepts, approaches, and case studies
Forests provide many tangible goods for human use. “Provisioning” of these goods is one of four categories of ecosystem service (ES) (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are a general category of goods provisioned by forests, which include food, medicine, decorations, landscaping, and arts and crafts (Chamberlain, Bush, and Hammett 1998); Chamberlain, Emery, and Patel-Weynand 2018) forests. NTFPs do not include “timber,” that is, wood utilized at industrial scales or sold in commodity markets, but they do include ﬁrewood and wood for artisanal purposes (Belcher 2003); Chamberlain, Emery, and Patel-Weynand 2018). Most literature on NTFPs in the United States does not include animal wildlife, which typically receives separate treatment in forest management and scientiﬁc literature.