Efficient utilization and conversion of whole components in waste biomass with one-pot-oriented liquefaction
A simple oriented liquefaction with microwave assistance was introduced to produce phenolic compounds and cellulose nanoﬁbers from the comprehensive utilization of biomass. Eﬀects of process parameters on the yield and composition of liqueﬁed straw products were investigated. Liqueﬁed products was separated into liquid and solid products. The highest phenolics content (72.87%) in liquid products was achieved; the yield of nanoﬁbers from liqueﬁed solid products was 47.43 wt %. With stepwise extraction, phenolics with nice reactivity were largely separated into three fractions. They were mainly composed of phenolic compounds and aromatic derivatives and had good solubility in organic solvents. After a chemicalpuriﬁed treatment, solid products containing highly crystalline cellulose were converted into nanoﬁbers with good application. These simple processes achieve a comprehensive use of liqueﬁed products to various synthetical directions based on diﬀerent molecular structures and chemical solubility. Directional liquefaction was signiﬁcantly eﬀective to produce renewable phenolics and nanoﬁbers and realizes the integrated valorization of whole components in waste biomass.