Reproduction and control of the invasive polyphagous shot hole borer, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in three species of hardwoods: effective sanitation through felling and chipping
The invasive ambrosia beetle polyphagous shot hole borer is one member of the cryptic species, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Eichhoff), and poses a great ecological and environmental threat to ornamental and native hardwood trees and agriculturally important tree crops in southern California, United States. We monitored the emergence of polyphagous shot hole borer adults from chipped and unchipped cut logs of infested boxelder, Acer negundo L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae), California sycamore, Platanus racemosa Nutt. (Proteales: Platanaceae), coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née (Fagales: Fagaceae), and red willow, Salix laevigata Bebb (Malpighiales: Salicaceae), every week for 4 to 5 mo. No polyphagous shot hole borer adults emerged from chipped or unchipped coast live oak logs, suggesting this species is not a preferred reproductive host. However, following chipping, a small number of polyphagous shot hole borer adults emerged from boxelder (up to 7 wk) and from California sycamore and red willow (both up to 9 wk). A significantly greater number of polyphagous shot hole borer adults emerged from unchipped logs of boxelder (up to 14 wk) and California sycamore and red willow (both up to 5 mo). Chipping of boxelder, California sycamore, and red willow by using common commercially available chippers reduced polyphagous shot hole borer emergence by over 97%. Emerged polyphagous shot hole borer adults were strongly female-biased, regardless of host. Chipping treatments were highly effective, but for the complete elimination of polyphagous shot hole borer from woody material, other sanitation measures such as solarization in conjunction with chipping are recommended. Environmental and ecological impact of polyphagous shot hole borer is reviewed and discussed.