Performance Analysis of MAU-9 Electronic-Nose MOS Sensor Array Components and ANN Classification Methods for Discrimination of Herb and Fruit Essential Oils
The recent development of MAU-9 electronic sensory methods, based on artificial olfaction detection of volatile emissions using an experimental metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)-type electronic-nose (e-nose) device, have provided novel means for the effective discovery of adulterated and counterfeit essential oil-based plant products sold in worldwide commercial markets. These new methods have the potential of facilitating enforcement of regulatory quality assurance (QA) for authentication of plant product genuineness and quality through rapid evaluation by volatile (aroma) emissions. The MAU-9 e-nose system was further evaluated using performance-analysis methods to determine ways for improving on overall system operation and effectiveness in discriminating and classifying volatile essential oils derived from fruit and herbal edible plants. Individual MOS-sensor components in the e-nose sensor array were performance tested for their effectiveness in contributing to discriminations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyzed in headspace from purified essential oils using artificial neural network (ANN) classification. Two additional statistical data-analysis methods, including principal regression (PR) and partial least squares (PLS), were also compared. All statistical methods tested effectively classified essential oils with high accuracy. Aroma classification with PLS method using 2 optimal MOS sensors yielded much higher accuracy than using all nine sensors. The accuracy of 2-group and 6-group classifications of essentials oils by ANN was 100% and 98.9%, respectively.