Temperature-dependent development, survival, and oviposition of laricobius osakensis (Coleoptera: Derodontidae): A specialist predator of adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)
A predator, Laricobius osakensis Montgomery and Shiyake (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), is being mass-produced and released for the biological control of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). To better understand and predict the seasonality of this predator in North America, the development and reproduction of L. osakensis were evaluated at constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 22°C. The predicted seasonal biology was compared with data from field collections. L. osakensis did not complete development from egg to adult at the two lowest temperatures tested, 5 and 8°C, but did so at the highest temperature of 22°C. The minimum development thresholds were estimated for eggs (4.2°C), first (1.8°C), second (5.5°C), third (4.6°C), and fourth instar (4.1°C), prepupa (3.6°C), and pupa (7.5°C). Oviposition rates were significantly greater at 5 and 10°C than at 20 and 25°C. Head capsule width significantly increased for each of the four larval instars with a mean of 0.19, 0.26, 0.35, and 0.44 mm, respectively. Laboratory and field data were used to develop a phenology forecasting model to predict the occurrence of all developmental stages of L. osakensis. This model will allow land managers to more accurately predict the optimal timing for L. osakensis larval sampling throughout its established range.