Forest management for sustainable sourcing of non-timber forest products in a bioeconomy
Assimilating non-timber forest products (NTFPs) into forest management is needed for efficient forest-based bioeconomies. In transitioning from classical linear economic and industrial models to a progressive bioeconomy, forest resources will be central in providing a range of products. More than ever, attention is focused on increasing and improving forest productivity while addressing tensions between potentially conflicting objectives. In this context, integration of NTFPs requires consideration of compatibilities and trade-offs between forest managements goals, and appropriate actions to support and account for NTFPs inclusion in bioeconomies. In this chapter, we explore and integrate the concepts and principles of forest management, NTFPs, and a bioeconomy. Through a narrative literature synthesis, we examine (i) silvicultural management for integrative production of timber and NTFPs and (ii) challenges and factors that may encourage a transition to sustainable forest management that includes NTFPs in the bioeconomy. To realise the two major premises of a bioeconomy, economic potential and long-term sustainability, forest management planning should be inclusive of NTFPs, timber, and ecosystem services, hence integrating the production of multiple goods and services. To achieve this, silvicultural management modelled on the ecology of non-timber and timber species can be used with governance mechanisms that consider socio-economic and legislative actions to expedite and support the transition.