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Goal: Deliver Benefits to the Public Family forests are the ties that bind the landscape

Aerial photo showing exurban development next to a forest

Exurban development changes the landscape context of family forest. (Courtesy photo by Larry Korhnak, InterfaceSouth)


Family forests have an enormous capacity to provide ecosystem services such as clean air and water, timber and nontimber forest products, wildlife habitat, and scenic beauty and recreation — benefits that stretch far beyond property lines. Research demonstrates that sustaining these services depends on not only the condition of individual family forests but also the characteristics of bordering lands.


An Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center researcher and North Carolina State University collaborator assessed the threats to family forests in contiguous U.S. by measuring changes in the landscape around them between 2001 and 2011, focusing on forest fragmentation and human interface zones. Their findings, published in the journal Landscape and Urban Planning, indicate that landscapes containing family forests changed substantially over a relatively short time period. By 2011, 46% of family forest land area was in a human interface zone, including 33% in agriculture interface zones – areas that have been linked to fire occurrence and the spread of invasive plants. While only 29% of family forest area was considered unfragmented in 2011, most of the total unfragmented forest was still privately owned because most forest area is privately owned. The study identified broad areas where family forest conservation could be targeted and leveraged to achieve far-reaching impacts. These areas include the eastern Great Plains steppe and parkland, Midwest broadleaf forest, and California coast, where unfragmented forest is relatively rare, as well as most of the eastern U.S., where family forests dominate the landscape.