RNA: R. R. Reynolds
Forest: Crossett Experimental Forest, Ouachita National Forest
Established: 1943; Acres: 80–acre area (32.4 ha)
To view Establishment records for R. R. Reynolds RNA in PDF format, Click Here
Click here, to view a searchable map for the R.R. Reynolds RNA
Ecological/Physical Description: The R.R. Reynolds RNA is a closed–canopy, mature loblolly pine–hardwood forest that has had little human intervention for 65 years. One of the most distinctive features of the RNA is its large trees (Figure 2). Some of the loblolly pines approach 40 inches (101 cm) in d.b.h. and are nearly 140 feet (43 m) tall. In the 1993 inventory, the largest diameter tree in the RNA was a white oak (Quercus alba) that measured 44 inches (112 cm) in diameter. Shelton and Cain (1999) reported that the oldest trees in the RNA approach 150 years for both pines and oaks. Such trees are living representatives of the virgin forest.
Physical and Climatic Conditions
Nearest weather station, with distance and direction from RNA: a weather station is maintained at the Crossett Experimental Forest headquarters located 1.0 mile (1.7 km) to the west of the RNA
Annual precipitation (type, seasonal distribution): 55.49 in, (140.9 ha)
Maximum and minimum temperatures: 75.7 max (24.3), 51.6 min, (10.9) degrees Fahrenheit or (Centigrade)
Elevation: 125 to 134 feet (38 to 41 m)
Geology and Soils: The RNA is located in the West Gulf Coastal Plain, with elevations ranging from 125 to 134 feet (38 to 41 m) above sea level. Typical sedimentary deposits consist of unconsolidated clay, sand, and gravel of Quaternary age. Along broad upland flats, there is a significant deposit of loess of up to a foot (25 cm) thick that was deposited during the Quaternary. The youngest rocks that underlie the RNA belong to the Claiborne Group, which is of Tertiary age. The Claiborne Group is chiefly non-marine in origin, but does contain some marine intervals (Howard et al. 1997). The Claiborne Group, which may be up to 1,500 feet (457 m) thick, has been subdivided into the Carrizo Sand, Cane River Formations, Sparta Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, and Cockfield Formation. Fossils include fish and reptile bones and teeth, leaf impressions, and trace fossils.
Aquatic Features: The area is dissected by several intermittent drainages.
Plant Communities:The overstory of the R.R. Reynolds RNA is composed of loblolly pine with some shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), white oak (Quercus alba), southern red oak (Q. falcata), post oak (Q. stellata), cherrybark oak (Q. falcata var pagodifolia), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) (Table 2). Tree species occurring in the midstory include: American holly (Ilex opaca), red maple (Acer rubrum), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida).
SAF Cover Types (list acres):Kuchler Types (list acres):
Loblolly pine–hardwood–82Oak–hickory–pine, 51 ac (20.6 ha)
Loblolly pine–81Oak–hickory–pine, 15 ac (6.1 ha)
Loblolly–shortleaf pine–80Oak–hickory–pine, 14 ac (5.7 ha))
Common Shrub Species: The understory in composed of tree seedlings and a wide variety of shrubs, including: American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), deciduous holly (I. decidua), hawthorns (Crataegus spp.), huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.), and sweetleaf (Symplocos tinctoria).
Common Herbaceous Species:
Common Mammal Species: Faunal species other than birds have not been systematically studied or inventoried in the R.R. Reynolds RNA. However, some of the vertebrates most likely to be found include:
Common Bird Species: The closed-canopy, vertical structure, mixed-species composition, and forest gaps of the RNA support a variety of avifauna. A recent survey of the RNA revealed 40 species of birds (Table 3). Breeding residents of the RNA include 15 species of neotropical migrants and 17 species that are year-round residents. Acadian flycatcher, Great-crested flycatcher, and Red-eyed vireo are the most common neotropical migratory species, whereas Carolina wren, Pine warbler, and Northern cardinal are some of the more common year-round residents. The RNA also supports some transient species including Veery, Tennessee warbler, and Black-throated green warbler that use the RNA as a stopover point during their flight north. The large overstory trees support a pair of Red-shouldered hawks. The RNA also has some very large snags that attract Pileated and other woodpeckers and a pair of Wood ducks.
Related Reports and Publications:
Additional reports and publications can also be found by clicking on the “RNA Publications and Products” link in the site menu or by clicking here.
Bragg, Don C.; Shelton, Michael G. 2011. Lessons from 72 years of monitoring a once–cut pine–hardwood stand on the Crossett Experimental Forest, Arkansas, U.S.A. Forest Ecology and Management. 261:911-922. (R.R.Reynolds RNA)
Bragg, Don C.; Shelton, Michael G.; Guldin, James M. 2008. Restoring old–growth southern pine ecosystems: strategic lessons from long–term silvicultural research. In: Deal, R.L. (Ed.), Integrated restoration of forested ecosystems to achieve multiresource benefits: Proceedings of the 2007 National Silviculture Workshop. PNW–GTR–733. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. (includes data on R.R.Reynolds RNA)
Shelton, Michael G.; Cain, Michael D. 1999. Structure and short–term dynamics of the tree component of a mature pine–oak forest in southeastern Arkansas. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 126(1): 32–48. (R.R. Reynolds Research Natural Area)
Cain, Michael D.; Shelton, Michael G. 1996. The R.R. Reynolds Research Natural Area in Southeastern Arkansas: A 56–year case study in pine–hardwood overstory sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, Vol. 3(4) 1996.
Zhang, M. 2000. Quantification of snags and downed wood in the R.R. Reynolds Research Natural Area and Good Forty Demonstration Area in southeastern Arkansas. M.S. thesis. Univ. Ark., Monticello, AR.
Bragg Don C. 2002. Reference conditions for old-growth pine forests in the upper west Gulf Coastal Plain. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 129: 261-288. (R.R. Reynolds Research Natural Area)
Bragg, Don C. 2004. Composition, structure, and dynamics of a pine-hardwood old-growth remnant in Southern Arkansas. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 131: 320–336. (includes data on R.R.Reynolds RNA)
Bragg, Don C. and Heitzman, Eric. 2009. Composition, structure, and dynamics of a mature, unmanaged, pine–dominated old–field stand in southeastern Arkansas. Southeastern Naturalist, 8(3):445–470. (includes data on R.R.Reynolds RNA)
Bragg, Don C. 2004. Composition and structure of a 1930s–era pine–hardwood stand in Arkansas. Southeastern Naturalist, 3(2):327–344. (includes data on R.R.Reynolds RNA)
Bragg, Don C. 2013. Composition, biomass, and overstory spatial patterns in a mature pine–hardwood stand in southeastern Arkansas. Castanea: 78: 37–55. (includes data on R.R.Reynolds RNA)
Last Modified: 1/14/2016 by Mary Mallinson Long (firstname.lastname@example.org)