RNA Publications & Products (Southern Region/Southern Research Station)

Image from Research Natural Area

Selected research publications and reports from studies and investigations performed in RNAs in Southern Region (R8)/Southern Research Station (SRS).

You may search all SRS online publications here. For general reports on RNAs, search “Research Natural Areas.”

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RNA Name Publication Abstract Link to Report
Reed Brake Beckett, S. and Golden. 1982. Forest vegetation and vascular flora of Reed Brake Research Natural Area, Alabama. Castanea 47(4): 368–392. Eight forest community types are defined and described for Reed Brake Research Natural Area, a 242 ha tract in the Hilly Coastal Plain of central Alabama. Community locations are related to topographic position, past logging history, slope direction, and slope steepness. The community types are: Longleaf Pine, Shortleaf Pine-Hardwoods, Southern Red Oak-Mixed Oak, Chestnut Oak, Loblolly Pine-Upland Hardwoods, Loblolly Pine-lowland Hardwoods, Sweetgum-Yellow-Poplar, and Swamp Tupelo-Sweetbay. Due to fire protection, hardwoods are increasing in importance in the Longleaf Pine communities. http://www.jstor.org/
Reed Brake Beckett, S. W. 1980. An ecological study of Reed Brake Research Natural Area, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Auburn University.   http://aubiecat.auburn.edu/
Reed Brake Patterson, S. H. and M. K. Armstrong. 1984. Big Sandy, West Elliotts Creek, and Reed Brake Roadless Areas, Alabama. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper: 17–20.   https://babel.hathitrust.org/
Bee Branch Devall, M. S. and P. F. Ramp. 1992. U. S. Forest Service Research Natural Areas and protection of old growth in the South. Natural areas journal 12(2). Much of the old-growth forest in the southern United States is on the national forests. The U.S. Forest Service Research Natural Areas (RNA) Program is one method for protecting old growth at the same time as making it available for scientific studies and educational purposes. This paper discusses the RNA program and describes several old-growth forests in the RNA system: the Red Gum, Overcup Oak, and Green Ash Research Natural Areas, three remnants of virgin forests in the Mississippi River floodplain; the Bee Branch RNA, a disjunct eastern hemlock and beech community in northern Alabama; and the Roaring Branch RNA, an old–growth hardwood and shortleaf pine forest in western Arkansas.  
Bee Branch Gunasekaran, M., et al. 1992. Reanalysis of the Vegetation of Bee Branch Gorge Research Natural Area, a Hemlock-Beech Community on the Warrior River Basin of Alabama. Castanea 57(1): 34–45 A vegetation analysis was made of the Bee Branch Gorge Research Natural Area by Hardin and Lewis in 1977. In 1989 we repeated the vegetation analysis to determine what changes have occurred in this hemlock-beech dominated Research Natural Area. In the 1977 analysis, the two co-dominant tree species as indicated by importance percentage (IP) were Fagus grandifolia (IP=21) and Tsuga canadensis (IP=20). In the 1989 sample, Tsuga canadensis (IP=31) had a higher importance percentage than Fagus grandifolia (IP=21). However, the correlation of the IP percentages of all the trees between 1977 and 1989 was high (r2 =.95). The major shrubs in 1977 were: Smilax spp., Vitis rotundifolia and Kalmia latifolia. In 1989, the most common shrubs were: Vitis rotundifolia, Arundinaria gigantea (IP=18) and Smilax spp. The major herbaceous plants in 1977 were: Carex picta and Mitchella repens. In 1989, Carex picta and Mitchella repens were still the major plants. Although there has been some differences in importance percentages of the plants, the study area has not changed much in 12 years, an indication that this is a fairly stable forest. One difference is the increase in the number of paw paw trees in 1989 as compared to 1977. http://www.jstor.org/
Bee Branch Hardin, E. D. and K. P. Lewis 1980. Vegetation Analysis of Bee Branch Gorge, a Hemlock–Beech Community on the Warrior River Basin of Alabama. Castanea 45(4): 248–256. Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and beech (Fagus grandifolia) are the dominant tree species in the relatively undisturbed community in Bee Branch Gorge. Catbriers (Smilax spp.), muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia), and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) are the dominant shrub canopy species, and a sedge (Carex picta) and partridge berry (Mitchella repens) are the dominant herbaceous canopy species. Analysis of sub-samples from the total sample of 234 points shows that hemlock has its highest importance percentages in the lower two–thirds of the gorge, especially at the base of the bluffs and along the stream. High importance percentages for hemlock saplings and seedlings indicate its persistence in this relatively stable community. The majority of 20 soil samples were acidic sandy–loams.
Bee Branch Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1990. Bee Branch, Alabama. Natural History 99(3): 80–82 Comments on the diverse trees, wildflowers and ferns found in Bee Branch, William B. Bankhead National Forest, Alabama. Vegetation in the canyons; Diversity of ferns; Process of reproduction for filmy ferns  
Bee Branch Society of American Foresters., DeVall, W. B., & Alabama Society of American Foresters. (1949). Records, 1949–1983. Archival material. Records collected by Division Historian, Wilbur DeVall, including organizational records, minutes, correspondence, fiscal records, membership lists, biographical sketches, photographs of early Alabama lumbering operations, and historical forestry-related publications. Of special interest are the records of the Special Committee for the Investigation of the Bee Branch Scenic Area. http://aubiecat.auburn.edu/
Dismal Hollow no pub found    
Gap Creek no pub found    
Lake Winona Bragg, D. C., et al. (2003). Age class distribution of a virgin shortleaf pine stand. Ecological society of america annual meeting abstracts    
Lake Winona Bragg, D. C. and M. A. Spetich (2004). “Patterns of oak dominance in the Eastern Ouachita Mountains suggested by early records.” General technical report – southern research station, usda forest service(SRS-73): 57–61. Many years of human influence across the Interior Highlands have caused profound changes in forest composition, disturbance regimes, and understory dynamics. However, information on the historical condition of these forests is limited. General Land Office (GLO) records, old documents, and contemporary studies provided data on the township encompassing the Lake Winona Research Natural Area (LWRNA). The study area was first surveyed between 1821 and 1838, and few settlers had settled this mountainous region by the 1930s. A 1987 ecological assessment of the LWRNA, coupled with other reports, supplemented the GLO descriptions. The original surveys tallied at least 15 species of witness trees, primarily white oak (Quercus alba L.), black oak (Q. velutina Lam.), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), and post oak (Q. stellata Wang.). A 1931 resurvey identified at least 14 taxa, but by then the witness trees had become overwhelmingly shortleaf pine, with much less oak. Forest composition in the LWRNA is shifting once again toward oak dominance, with a prominent pine supercanopy //www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/
Lake Winona Fountain, M. (1991). Tree and non-tree dimensions of an old-growth shortleaf pine stand: Lake Winona Research Natural Area. Restoration of old growth forests in the interior highlands of Arkansas and Oklahoma. Proceedings of the conference. Ouachita National Forest and Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development.  .  
Lake Winona Fountain, M. S. and J. M. Sweeney (1987). “ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE LAKE WINONA RESEARCH NATURAL AREA.” Usda forest service southern forest experiment station research paper(235): 1–14. The Lake Winona Research Natural Area (LWRNA) covers 113.3 ha in the Ouachita mountains of Arkansas and was established in 1977. Analysis of the overstorey identified 22 species of tree, of which shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) was much the most important, followed by white oak (Quercus alba) and blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica). Data are tabulated on the frequencies of the 22 species, together with information on the 50 shrub, woody vine and tree species of the shrub component and the 75 species of the herbaceous component. The ecological status and wildlife habitat value of the LWRNA are described.  
Roaring Branch Fountain, M. S. and J. M. Sweeney (1985). “ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ROARING BRANCH RESEARCH NATURAL AREA.” Usda forest service southern forest experiment station research paper(213): 1–15.    
R.R. Reynolds Bragg, D. and M. G. Shelton (2009). Overstory Dynamics in an Uncut Pine-Hardwood Stand: Lessons From Seventy Years of Passive Management. Ecological Lessons From Long–Term Studies in Experimental Forests. A. P. Youngblood, Brian. Long–term demonstration projects on experimental forests can be adapted from their original goals to provide insights into contemporary research questions. For instance, a 32.4–hectare cutover parcel on the Crossett Experimental Forest, the eventual Reynolds Research Natural Area (RRNA), was reserved in 1936 to act as a control for more intensively managed study areas. Over the last 70+ years, the RRNA has been allow to develop under ‘natural’ conditions that include no harvesting or other human interventions–with the notable exception of fire control. From 1937 until the most recent measurement in 2007, overall stand basal increased from about 20 to 36 m2/ha. The shade-intolerant loblolly and shortleaf pines in this stand remained relatively constant at two-thirds of total basal area until the mid-1990s, after which they declined noticeably, dropping to just over 50% by 2007. The gradual development of a continuous hardwood, shrub, and liana under- and midstory, coupled with a thick litter layer, has severely suppressed pine regeneration. This long–term project has demonstrated that without intense large–scale disturbance events, perpetuating a significant pine component in mesic old–growth sites of the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain is highly unlikely. Rather, a strategy that incorporates controlled burns and/or deliberate interventions such as underplanting pine seedlings or the release of well–established pine saplings may provide better opportunities for improving pine representation. This is not the only lesson that the long-term study of the RRNA has provided. The gradual transition from pine to hardwood may not dramatically influence carbon storage in mature, closed canopy stands–our data show an aboveground biomass increase of ~10% during the last two decades, even as pine stocking has declined and overall basal area remains largely unchanged. From a sequestration perspective, the conversion to hardwoods, with their denser wood and larger crowns, has more than offset the loss of pine.  
R.R. Reynolds Bragg, D. C. (2001). Preserving an old–growth pine remnant: Do two “wrongs” make a "right"? Ecological society of america annual meeting abstracts.   Source: BIOSIS
R.R. Reynolds Bragg, D. C. (2002). “Reference Conditions for Old-Growth Pine Forests in the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain.” Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 129(4): 261–288 Ecosystem restoration has become an important component of forest management, especially on public lands. However, determination of manageable reference conditions has lagged behind the interest. This paper presents a case study from pine-dominated forests in the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain (UWGCP), with special emphasis on southern Arkansas. Decades of forest management, fire exclusion, exotic species invasion, and other ecological changes have converted the small remnants of mature shortleaf (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands into ineffectual models for restoring presettlement–like conditions. However, sufficient information can be gathered from available references to more reliably describe the boundaries of the desired reference environment. Early explorer accounts, maps, survey records, historical trade and technical publications, and modern scientific journals were consulted to reconstruct presettlement (pre–1900) forest conditions for pine-dominated landscapes of the UWGCP. On average, virgin UWGCP pine forests had considerably more shortleaf pine (especially in the uplands) than contemporary natural stands, with relatively low basal area and standing volume concentrated in large trees. Presettlement pine timber also had less uniform structural and spatial patterns than modern examples of mature pine. Assuming most of the critical processes are still present, it appears possible to recreate the compositional and structural attributes of virgin pine forests  
R.R. Reynolds Bragg, D. C. (2004). “Composition and structure of a 1930s–era pine–hardwood stand in Arkansas.” Southeastern Naturalist 3(2): 327–344. This paper describes an unmanaged 1930s–era pine–hardwood stand on a minor stream terrace in Ashley County, AR. Probably inventoried as a part of an early growth and yield study, the sample plot was approximately 3.2 ha in size and contained at least 21 tree species. Loblolly pine comprised 39.1% of all stems, followed by willow oak (12.7%), winged elm (9.6%), sweetgum (7.8%), water oak (6.7%), white oak (6.2%), red oak (4.9%), and hickory (4.6%). Pine, sweetgum, and oak dominated the midcanopy and overstory, with few late successional species. Stand basal area averaged 32 m2/ha, with 409 live trees/ha. The dominance of shade intolerant species, the lack of very big trees, and a scarcity of snags suggested that this stand was second–growth and likely arose from a disturbance in the mid–19th Century. Because this forest was sampled in the 1930s, its composition and structure should better reflect mature presettlement pine–hardwoods on minor stream terrace sites than modern examples.  
R.R. Reynolds Bragg, D. C. (2004). “Composition, Structure, and Dynamics of a Pine-Hardwood Old-Growth Remnant in Southern Arkansas.” Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 131(4): 320–336 The Levi Wilcoxon Demonstration Forest (LWDF) was originally established by the Crossett Lumber Company in 1939 to promote forestry research and demonstration in the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain of southern Arkansas. The reserve currently has at least 27 different overstory tree species, with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.), and white oak (Quercus alba L.) comprising the majority of stand basal area. Hardwoods are most numerous, dominated by shade-tolerant species such as red maple (Acer rubrum L.), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica L.), and winged elm (Ulmus alata Michx.), especially in the subcanopy and understory. Large pines, oaks, and sweetgum are scattered throughout the stand, with some individuals exceeding 100 cm DBH and 45 m tall. Overstory trees rarely proved sound enough to age, but some stumps, logs, and increment cores suggest that the dominant canopy pines are 100 to 150 years old, with the largest individuals exceeding 200 years. Pines contributed the greatest amount of coarse woody debris. The average volume of dead wood was noticeably less than other examples of old–growth upland forest in the eastern United States, attributable largely to salvage. Increased windthrow and the salvage of dead and dying pines have become the primary perturbations of the LWDF. Without large-scale disturbance like catastrophic fire or logging, shade–intolerant pines, oaks, and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) will decline in prominence, to be replaced by more shade-tolerant species.  
R.R. Reynolds Bragg, D. C. (2014). “Eighty Years of Silvicultural History at the Crossett Experimental Forest.” Journal of Forestry 112(2): 237.    
R.R. Reynolds Bragg, D. C. and J. M. Guldin (2015). “The Silvicultural Implications of Age Patterns in Two Southern Pine Stands after 72 Years of Uneven–Aged Management.” Forest Science 61(1): 176–182. A randomized sample of 250 loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata Mill.) pine ring counts was collected from the Good and Poor Farm Forestry compartments on the Crossett Experimental Forest. These mature, pine–dominated stands have been managed using uneven–aged silviculture since 1937. Our sample shows that both of these compartments have many different age classes although few distinct cohorts. Over the decades, pine recruitment followed the dozens of timber harvests and occasional natural mortality events (e.g., lightning strikes, ice storms, windthrow, insects, and disease). After more than 70 years of active management, only 5% of the overstory pines are shortleaf and about 6% of all pines originated before the imposition of uneven–aged silviculture. The age structure of these stands can be used to adapt conventional silvicultural treatments. For example, a wide range of ages was found in the sawtimber size classes, indicating that productivity improvements are still possible. The data also suggest that it may be possible to modify current practices to alter the age structure to favor other kinds of ecosystem services (e.g., wildlife habitat).  
R.R. Reynolds Bragg, D. C. and M. G. Shelton (2011). “Lessons from 72 years of monitoring a once–cut pine–hardwood stand on the Crossett Experimental Forest, Arkansas, USA.” Forest ecology and management 261(5): 911–922. The Crossett Experimental Forest was established in 1934 to provide landowners in the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain with reliable, science–based advice on how to manage their loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine–dominated forests. A key component of this program was the establishment of an unmanaged control, currently known as the Russell It Reynolds Research Natural Area (RRNA). Originally intended to show how the lack of regulation reduced sawtimber production compared to more intensively managed stands, the once–cut RRNA is now recognized as an increasingly scarce example of an undisturbed, mature pine–hardwood stand. This, in turn, has led to studies on forest succession, coarse woody debris, old–growth stand structure conditions, and biomass accumulation patterns. Long–term (72 years, to date) research has shown, as an example, that the RRNA has sustained > 33 m(2) of basal area and over 240 Mg of aboveground live tree biomass per hectare for decades, values that are near the upper end of temperate forest ecosystems (outside of rainforests). These high levels are made possible by the abundance of large pines; however, pine mortality and natural successional patterns in this undisturbed stand will likely result in declining biomass in the near future. Additional work is possible regarding endangered species habitat and paleoclimate change, and there is potential for studies on invasive species effects on mature, unmanaged forests. Monitoring will continue indefinitely on the RRNA. http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/
R.R. Reynolds Bragg, D. C. and M. G. Shelton (2014). The Value of Old Forests: Lessons from the Reynolds Research Natural Area. USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges, Springer: 61–84. In 1934, the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF) opened to develop good forestry practices for the poorly stocked pine–hardwood stands that arose following the high–grading of the virgin forest. One CEF demonstration area has had no active silviculture other than fire protection since 1937; this 32.4–ha stand is now the Russell R. Reynolds Research Natural Area (Reynolds RNA). Periodic inventories of this tract provide a unique account of long–term stand development under minimal anthropogenic disturbance. For instance, successional change has been characterized by the slow conversion from pines to hardwoods. Gradually, as the dominant pines die, they are replaced by increasingly shade–tolerant hardwoods, resulting in a dense understory and midstory. Without concurrent fire to help prepare the seedbed, even a relatively severe bark beetle infestation in 1993–1994 failed to sufficiently disturb the site and permit the establishment of a new pine cohort. In addition to lessons learned on succession in this cover type, research associated with the Reynolds RNA has also helped develop old–growth restoration strategies, the ecological role of large dead wood in southern pine forests, the deleterious effect of dense midstory hardwoods on red–cockaded woodpecker habitat, the value of old forests in modeling tree allometry and carbon sequestration, and the unexpected benefits of preserving unique landscape features for future study. Clearly, the Reynolds RNA has demonstrated that there are opportunities to learn from passive stand management. http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/
R.R. Reynolds Bragg, D. C., et al. (2008). “Restoring old–growth southern pine ecosystems: Strategic lessons from long-term silvicultural research.” Usda forest service – general technical report pnw–gtr(733): 211–224. The successful restoration of old–growth–like loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pine-dominated forests requires the integration of ecological information with long–term silvicultural research from places such as the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF). Conventional management practices such as timber harvesting or competition control have supplied us with the tools for restoration efforts. For example, the CEF’s Good and Poor Farm Forestry Forties in southern Arkansas, USA, have been under uneven–aged silvicultural prescriptions for 70 years. Monitoring these demonstration areas has provided insights on pine regeneration, structural and compositional stability, endangered species management, and sustainability capable of guiding prescriptions for old–growth–like pine forests. Other studies on the CEF–s Reynolds Research Natural Area have provided lessons on the long–term impacts of fire suppression, woody debris and duff accumulation, hardwood competition, and pine regeneration failures. This experience leads us to believe the productivity and resilience of these forests can be adapted to create functionally sustainable old–growth–like stands by integrating silviculture and restoration http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/
R.R. Reynolds Cain, M. D. and M. G. Shelton (1996). “The R. R. Reynolds Research Natural Area in southeastern Arkansas: a 56–year case study in pine–hardwood overstory sustainability.” Journal of sustainable forestry 3(4). The R. R. Reynolds Research Natural Area is a 32-ha pine/broadleaved forest in southeastern Arkansas, which originated from diameter-limit cutting of the virgin forest before 1915. In 1935, the area was reserved from timber management. Between 1937 and 1993, eight inventories were taken of all living trees >9–cm diameter at breast height (DBH), using 2.5–cm DBH classes within three species groups: Pinus spp., Quercus spp., and other broadleaves. In 1994, all standing dead snags of pines and broadleaves >9-cm DBH were inventoried by 2.5–cm DBH classes. During 56 years, the overstorey pine/broadleaf ratio remained stable in terms of relative basal area, but pine density decreased with a commensurate increase in broadleaf density. In 1993, pines represented 63% of basal area but only 23% of stem density. Just before the 1993 inventory, a pine bark–beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis, D. terebrans and Ips spp.) infestation developed on the area, and within one year the pines lost about 2.5 m2/ha in basal area and had 180% more snags than were contributed by broadleaves. The overstorey pine component is decreasing in density as a result of natural senescence and the allogenic effects of bark beetles. Broadleaf species are expected eventually to dominate the forest because shade-intolerant pine regeneration will not develop to maturity beneath the closed broadleaf canopy which can be altered only by catastrophic natural disturbances or anthropogenic intervention. http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/
R.R. Reynolds Shelton, M. G. and M. D. Cain (1999). “Structure and Short-Term Dynamics of the Tree Component of a Mature Pine– Oak Forest in Southeastern Arkansas.” Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 126(1): 32–48. The R.R. Reynolds Research Natural Area is a 32–ha second–growth forest with little human intervention for nearly 60 years. In this paper, we characterize the existing vegetation, which represents 60 years of successional change with no major disturbances, and report vegetative changes over a 5–year period, which suggest the future successional direction. Trees > q 9.0 cm DBH were inventoried in twenty 0.1–ha plots and placed into four species groups: pines, oaks, other overstory trees, and midstory trees. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was the dominant tree species, accounting for 51% of the total basal area and having the largest mean DBH (56.5 cm) and height (35.7 m). Tree ages ranged from 50 to 140 years for the pines and from 40 to 150 years for the oaks. However, 70% of the pines became established in the 4 decades that followed harvest of the virgin forest in the 1910s, while the oaks showed two peaks of establishment (one after harvest and one 50 years before harvest). The pines displayed a bell–shaped DBH–class distribution, while the oaks displayed a gradual decline in numbers as DBH-class increased. In contrast, the other overstory trees and midstory trees had negative exponential distributions. Multiple occupancy was common within the canopy, which had a horizontal coverage of 97%. Canopy positions of the species groups were as follows: pines>oaks>other overstory trees>midstory trees. The growth of individual trees was positively related with tree size. Stand-level survivor growth was positively related with the basal area of the species group. Recruitment was greatest for the other overstory trees and midstory trees (totaling 6.2 trees ha–1 yr–1), but did not occur for the pines and oaks. Mortality of large pines during the observation period (averaging 3.3 trees ha–1 yr–1) resulted in net losses in basal area and volume for that species group. By contrast, hardwood species groups displayed net increases, totaling 0.17 m2 ha‐1 yr–1 for basal area and 1.59 m3 ha–1 yr–1 for volume. Stand dynamics suggest that the shade–intolerant pines are rapidly being replaced by more shade–tolerant hardwoods. http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/
R.R. Reynolds Zhang, M. (2000). Quantification of snags and downed wood in the RR Reynolds Research Natural Area and Good Forty Demonstration Area in southeastern Arkansas.    
Turkey Ridge Ison, C. F. (1996). “Vascular Flora of St. Francis National Forest in Arkansas.” Castanea 61(1): 49–61. St. Francis National Forest is at the southernmost end of Crowley’s Ridge in Lee and Phillips Counties of Arkansas. Most of the Forest is located on Crowley's Ridge and has narrow ridges and valleys carved into the loessal soils. A small portion of the Forest is located along the Mississippi and St. Francis Rivers and is characterized by level, alluvial soils. This study identified 104 vascular plant families, 285 genera, 424 species and 11 subtaxa on the Forest. The study was begun in the fall of 1989 and completed in the spring of 1991.  
Apalachicola Savannah no pub found    
Osceola no pub found    
Murder Creek Harrington, Timothy B.; Xu, Mingguang; Edwards, M. Boyd 2000. Structural characteristics of late–sucessional pine–hardwood forest following recent infestation by southern pine beetle in the Georgia Piedmont, USA. Natural Areas Journal 20:360–365 At Murder Creek Research Natural Area, Georgia, USA, we compared structural characteristics of late–successional pine–hardwood stands two to three years after infestation by southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman) to those of adjacent noninfested stands. Death of up to eight Pinus taeda L. and P. echinata Mill. per mortality patch reduced stem density of pines from 399 to 205 trees ha–1. Stand basal area and average diameter of pines in beetle–infested stands (9.0 m2 ha–1 and 26.9 cm, respectively) were less than those of noninfested stands (30.6 m2 ha–1 and 38.5 cm, respectively). Stand basal area of hardwoods in southern pine beetle–infested stands (9.1 m2 ha–1) was less than that of noninfested stands (14.5 m2 ha–1) primarily because of lower abundances of Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Acer barbatum Michx. However, tree species diversity in beetle–infested stands exceeded that on noninfested stands (Simpson’s indices of 0.69 and 0.55, respectively) because proportionate abundance of hardwoods (67% and 33% of total stand basal area, respectively) was increased by the death of pines. Results indicate that small patch mortality from southern pine beetle increased structural complexity of late successional pine hard-wood stands by causing localized reductions in stem density of large pines (and therefore reduced susveptibility to future beetle attacks) and associated increases in tree species diversity. Development of several old–growth characteristics, particularly increased abundance of snags and dominance by late–successional hardwood species, has been accelerated by southern pine beetle infestation. http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/
Plot Cove no pub found    
Rock Creek Abbott, J. R., et al. (2001). “VASCULAR PLANTS NEW TO KENTUCKY.” SIDA, Contributions to Botany 19(4): 1199–1202. Fourteen species of vascular plants are reported new to the state of Kentucky, U.S.A. Five of these are European weeds: Anthoxanthum aristatum, Aphanes microcarpa, Erysimum hieraciifolium, Lathyrus tuberosus, and Vicia tetrasperma. The other nine are native species known from adjacent states and were, thus, not entirely unexpected: Acalypha deamii, Carex austrocaroliniana, Centunculus minimus, Elymus wiegandii, Equisetum � ferrissii, Leucothoe fontanesiana, Lupinus perennis, Polygonum cilinode, and Silene nivea. Se presentan 14 especies de plantas vasculares que fueron descubiertas como nuevas para el estado de Kentucky, EE.UU. Cinco de �stas son malezas de Europa: Anthoxanthum aristatum, Aphanes microcarpa, Erysimum hieraciifolium, Lathyrus tuberosus, y Vicia tetrasperma. Las otras nueve son especies nativas ya conocidas de los estados de alrededor y, por eso, no fueron totalmente inesperadas: Acalypha deamii, Carex austrocaroliniana, Centunculus minimus, Elymus wiegandii, Equisetum � ferrissii, Leucothoe fontanesiana, Lupinus perennis, Polygonum cilinode, y Silene nivea.  
Rock Creek Pederson, N. (2010). “External Characteristics of Old Trees in the Eastern Deciduous Forest.” Natural Areas Journal 30(4): 396–407. Because old trees contain centuries of environmental history, investigators are increasingly turning to dendrochronology to create context for current environmental change. While a suite of characteristics to identify old trees has been developed, most of these characteristics are for conifers or trees growing in low–density forests. Given that the diverse Eastern Deciduous Forest (EDF) is dominated by a species–rich, angiosperm–dominated woody flora, old–growth forests are scarce in the EDF, and research permits in natural areas often limit the number of trees that can be sampled, having a suite of characteristics that identify old trees for a wider range of species increases the likelihood of efficiently creating longer depths of ecological history. The common indicators of old (> 250 year old) EDF angiosperms are presented to aid in the recovery and preservation of these living sources of information. Six common external characteristics of old angiosperm trees include: (1) smooth or “balding” bark; (2) low stem taper; (3) high stem sinuosity; (4) crowns comprised of few, large–diameter, twisting limbs; (5) low crown volume; and (6) a low ratio of leaf area to trunk volume. The existence of old trees in the landscape can also be related to life–history traits or land–use histories. Both professionals and lay folk can be trained to identify these traits and environmental conditions. While these characteristics and settings generally signal the potential for old trees, there is no guarantee that they represent old ages. However, these characteristics should aid in the discovery of old trees throughout the EDF.  
Rock Creek Pederson, N., et al. (2012). “Long–term drought sensitivity of trees in second–growth forests in a humid region.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research 42(10): 1837–1850. Classical field methods of reconstructing drought using tree rings in humid, temperate regions typically target old trees from drought–prone sites. This approach limits investigators to a handful of species and excludes large amounts of data that might be useful, especially for coverage gaps in large–scale networks. By sampling in more “typical” forests, network density and species diversity would increase in ways that could potentially improve reconstructions. Ten nonclassical tree–ring chronologies derived from randomly selected trees, trees from logged forests, or both were compared to more classical chronologies and an independent regional drought reconstruction to determine their usefulness for dendrohydroclimatic research. We find that nonclassical chronologies are significantly correlated to classical chronologies and reconstructed drought over the last 2–3 centuries. While nonclassical chronologies have spectral properties similar to those from classical dendroclimatic collections, they do lack spectral power at lower frequencies that are present in the drought reconstruction. Importantly, our results show that tree growth is strongly dependent on moisture availability, even for small, randomly selected trees in cut forests. These results indicate that there could be more data available in areas with few current tree–ring collections for studying climate history and that drought plays an important role in humid forests.  
Rock Creek Scheff, R. J. (2012). The Development Of Old–Growth Structural Characteristics In Second-Growth Forests Of The Cumberland Plateau, Kentucky, Usa. Biological Sciences, Eastern Kentucky University. Master of Science. Prior to Euro–American colonization beginning in the late 1700s and subsequent periods of land conversion and intensive resource extraction, most forest on the Cumberland Plateau in Kentucky would have existed in a state meeting one or more of the definitions of old–growth forest in use today. However, many recovering, mature forests currently exist that might be redeveloping old–growth structure and function. To assess the development of old–growth forest characteristics in second–growth forests, 70 – 90 year old (young) and 140 – 160 year old (old) hardwood forests in the Daniel Boone National Forest were examined for a suite of structural characteristics to discern patterns of structural and successional development. Old forest was distinguishable from young forest, having reached thresholds similar to old–growth for presence of large canopy trees, coarse woody debris volume and size distribution, multi–age distribution, age of oldest trees, and complex canopy structure. Both ages of forest met thresholds for total basal area and met some proposed thresholds for stem density. Neither age of forest met suggested minimum densities for old-growth for snags > 30 cm DBH, though old forest had almost three times that of young forest, and nearly approached values reported for old–growth forest. Young and old forest also exhibited different patterns in oak and maple dynamics. Understory maples and overstory oaks recruited synchronously in young forest during the 1920s and 1930s, while recruitment of both species in old forest was temporally more broadly distributed. http://encompass.eku.edu/
Rock Creek Tackett, K. L. (2012). Forest dynamics of two multi–aged hemlock–mixed mesophytic forests in the northern Cumberland Plateau, Kentucky. Biological Sciences, Eastern Kentucky University. Master of Science. Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) is a foundation species that performs a unique ecological role within the Appalachian mixed mesophytic forest of the eastern United States. However, the non–native hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae Annand), a novel invasive colonizer, is significantly altering the natural processes within T. canadensis ecosystems. Few studies have documented T. canadensis forests before, during, and after HWA infestation. This study documented the pre–HWA conditions of two old hemlock–mixed mesophytic forests in eastern Kentucky by examining the composition, T. canadensis crown health, stand structure, age structure, and disturbance history. Rock Creek Research Natural Area (RCRNA) is a multi–aged primary forest while the Cold Hill Area (CHA) is a multi–aged mature secondary forest. Age structure and recruitment patterns at the RCRNA gorge imply limited, selective cutting at one end with old–growth forest conditions throughout the majority of the study area. In contrast, CHA appears to have experienced more intense selective cutting throughout a greater proportion of the study area. Larger synchronous disturbance peaks occurred in the decades of 1900 and 1980 and appear to be the result of logging in the early 1900s and, potentially, a combination of drought and windstorms in the 1980s. The most dominant canopy species at both study sites was T. canadensis, followed by Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar). Like many forests across the eastern United States, Acer rubrum (red maple) had the greatest seedling density at both study sites. Nearly all T. canadensis trees were healthy with no visible signs of HWA. The disturbance history, tree recruitment, and pre–HWA data from this study provides important baseline information for comparing the future dynamics of Kentucky’s Appalachian mixed mesophytic forest and other hemlock–dominated forests as HWA continues to significantly disrupt ecosystem processes. http://encompass.eku.edu/
Rock Creek Thompson, R. L. and R. L. Jones (2001). “Woody plants of Rock Creek Research Natural Area and Watershed Uplands, Laurel County, Kentucky.” Castanea 66(3): 275–287. A vegetation survey of woody plants was conducted during 1985–95 at the Rock Creek Research Natural Area (RCRNA) gorge, a 77–ha old–growth stand of hemlock–mixed mesophytic forest, and in a 353–ha upland watershed. The study site is located at the London Ranger District of the Daniel Boone National Forest in Laurel County, Kentucky, USA, at the extreme western edge of the Northern Cumberland Plateau. The objectives of the study were to: compile an annotated list of woody plants (trees, shrubs, woody vines); describe the plant community types present; determine the geographical floristic affinities of the woody plants; and calculate a Sorensens Index of Similarity coefficient for comparison between the native woody plants at RCRNA and watershed and Robinson Forest, and Lilley Cornett Woods. The annotated catalogue consists of 117 (112 native, 5 exotic) woody species in 77 genera from 43 families. Five plant community types described are the old–growth hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis)–mixed mesophytic forest, riverine floodplain forest of the RCRNA, pine (Pinus)–oak (Quercus) forest, oak–hickory (Carya)–pine forest, and clearcuts (7– and 35–year–old) of the watershed uplands. Geographical floristic affinities of the woody plants reveal that 87 are native to the area, 25 are introduced native species, and 5 are naturalized. The Sorensons Index of Similarity is 78.8% between RCRNA and its uplands and Robinson Forest, and 84.7% between RCRNA and its uplands and Lilley Cornett Woods, two other mixed mesophytic forest stands with old–growth remnants in the Northern Cumberland Plateau. Source: CAB
Rock Creek Thompson, R. L. J., Ronald L.; Abbott, J. Richard; Denton, W. Neal; (2000). Botanical survey of Rock Creek Research Natural Area, Kentucky. Newtown Square, PA, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. GTR–NE–272. A 10–year survey of vascular plants was made of Rock Creek Research Natural Area, a 77–ha deep, narrow gorge of old–growth Hemlock-Mixed Mesophytic Forest located in Laurel County, Kentucky, on the Daniel Boone National Forest. The study documented 350 specific and infraspecific taxa in 223 genera and 93 families. Thirteen are nonindigenous naturalized species. Vascular plants include 6 Lycopodiophyta, 25 Polypodiopyta, 5 Pinophyta, and 314 Magnoliophyta; 255 are annual, biennial, and perennial herbs and 95 are woody vines, shrubs, and trees. Seventeen rare and special interest species have been recorded, including 4 that are listed by the state. The floristic survey provides a baseline reference for relative abundance, species richness, plant associations, habitats, and generalized life–forms within the Rock Creek Research Natural Area. http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/
Bayou Boeuf Tucker, S. S. (1980). AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BAYOU BOEUF RESEARCH NATURAL AREA, RAPIDES PARISH, LOUISIANA. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Master of Science.    
Cunningham Brake Allen, C. (1993). Ecological assessment of the Cunningham Brake Research Natural Area in the Kisatchie National Forest, Louisiana. Unpublished report. Northeast Louisiana University, Department of Biology.    
Cunningham Brake Mathies, P. S., et al. (1983). “The Vascular Flora of Cunningham Brake, a Cypress–Gum Swamp in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana.– Castanea 48(1): 24–31. A floristic survey of Cunningham Brake, a cypress–gum swamp located in Kisatchie National Forest approximately 32 kilometers south of Natchitoches, Louisiana, was conducted from February, 1977, to June, 1978. The study area is characterized by six distinct habitats: 1) cypress–gum swamp; 2) lowland hardwoods; 3) open sand bars and edges of Kisatchie Bayou; 4) seepage areas; 5) wet, open areas; and 6) disturbed areas. The annotated list of taxa includes 81 families, 213 genera, and 313 species.  
Chuquatonchee Bluffs no pub found    
Granny Creek Bay no pub found    
Green Ash Devall, M. S. and P. F. Ramp 1992. U. S. Forest Service Research Natural Areas and protection of old growth in the South. Natural Areas Journal. 12(2): 75–85. Much of the old–growth forest in the southern United States is on the national forests. The U.S. Forest Service Research Natural Areas (RNA) Program is one method for protecting old growth at the same time as making it available for scientific studies and educational purposes. This paper discusses the RNA program and describes several old–growth forests in the RNA system: the Red Gum, Overcup Oak, and Green Ash Research Natural Areas, three remnants of virgin forests in the Mississippi River floodplain; the Bee Branch RNA, a disjunct eastern hemlock and beech community in northern Alabama; and the Roaring Branch RNA, an old–growth hardwood and shortleaf pine forest in western Arkansas. (Addresses Green Ash RNA pp. 80–81)  
Green Ash Gucker, Corey L. 2005. Fraxinus pennsylvanica. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). “Mississippi: Sharkey County is home to the Green Ash Research Natural Area. The vegetation of this area is dominated by Texas red oak, green ash, and American elm. There are old–growth green ash trees between 200 and 250 years old in the area [78]” http://www.fs.fed.us/database/
Green Ash Ramp, P.F. 1990. Ecological assessment of the Red Gum, Overcup Oak and Green Ash Research Natural Areas in the Delta National Forest, Mississippi. Unpublished manuscript for the USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.    
Harrison Devall, M. S., et al. 1991. Dendroecological analysis of a longleaf pine Pinus palustris forest in Mississippi. Vegetation 93(1): 1–8. A climate model with time varying parameters was fit to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) tree rings collected from the proposed Harrison Research Natural Area of the De Soto National Forest in southern Mississippi. The purpose of the analysis was to determine if any unexpected disturbances had influenced the growth of the trees. Current September temperature, August rainfall and February Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) were found jointly to be the best variables in the model to predict growth. August rain had a constant significant effect on growth and February PDSI was not significant except between the years 1968–1983. It was concluded that the Harrison area has been in equilibrium for the past 50 years since no apparent outside influences have caused the trees to become less sensitive to climate. Thus, the forest is a good candidate for a Research Natural Area.  
Nuxubee Crest Moore, A. D. 1993. A floristic survey of the Noxubee Crest Natural Area of the Tombigbee National Forest, Thesis (M.S.) – Mississippi State University: v, 64 leaves. Vascular plants and bryophytes were surveyed in the Noxubee Crest Natural Area of the Choctaw Wildlife Management Area, Winston County, Mississippi. The study area, in the Tombigbee National Forest, is of floristic interest because of the time the Natural Area has remained undisturbed by man. Fifty–seven collecting trips were made between October, 1991, and June, 1993. A total of 1425 specimens was collected which represents 452 species in 93 families of vascular plants and 30 species in 19 families of bryophytes. The floristic list includes the type of habitats in which each species occurs as well the common names, if any. Three major habitats are discussed and characteristic species of each type are listed. Summaries of the soils, geology, climate, and topography are also presented.  
Nutmeg Hickory no pub found    
Overcut Oak Devall, M. S. and P. F. Ramp 1992. U. S. Forest Service Research Natural Areas and protection of old growth in the South. Natural Areas Journal. 12(2): 75–85. Much of the old–growth forest in the southern United States is on the national forests. The U.S. Forest Service Research Natural Areas (RNA) Program is one method for protecting old growth at the same time as making it available for scientific studies and educational purposes. This paper discusses the RNA program and describes several old–growth forests in the RNA system: the Red Gum, Overcup Oak, and Green Ash Research Natural Areas, three remnants of virgin forests in the Mississippi River floodplain; the Bee Branch RNA, a disjunct eastern hemlock and beech community in northern Alabama; and the Roaring Branch RNA, an old–growth hardwood and shortleaf pine forest in western Arkansas.  
Overcut Oak Ramp, P.F. 1990. Ecological assessment of the Red Gum, Overcup Oak and Green Ash Research Natural Areas in the Delta National Forest, Mississippi. Unpublished manuscript for the USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.    
Overcut Oak Smith, C. G., Hamel, Gullo. 2010. Evaluating small mammal response to natural disturbance and restoration in oak ecosystems in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Colombia Forestal, 13, 2, 335–346. Oak species form a conspicuous and often dominant component of bottomland forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The extent of these forests has been drastically reduced as a result of clearing for agriculture in the past two centuries. Patterns of clearing have reduced the distribution of remaining forest patches to a much more flood–prone subset of the landscape than was historically the case, reducing the diversity of oak species currently present on the landscape. Intensive harvesting has further changed the composition of the remaining stands. Small remnant patches of primary forest continue to exist as Research Natural Areas on the Delta National Forest in Sharkey County, Mississippi. In particular, the Overcup Oak (Quercus lyrata) and Redgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Research Natural Areas present substantial components of the trees for which the areas were named, as well as Quercus nuttallii and smaller components of other species. Recent interest in afforestation has produced a resurgence of interest in restoration of oak forest to abandoned farmland in the region. We have studied small mammal response to restoration on an extensive experiment near the Delta National Forest since 1995. We have also examined small mammal response to a tornado that disturbed approximately half of the Overcup Oak Research Natural Area in 2008. We use these studies to demonstrate how population estimates of small mammals can be obtained from capture–recapture studies, employing different designs, and utilizing Program Capture for population estimation. Small mammal communities in these stands are more species–rich in early succession than in primary forest. The study of response to tornado damage to the Overcup Oak Research Natural Area is complicated by the fact that this particular forest type is very flood–prone, creating obstacles to colonization by small mammals. Analysis of capture-recapture data with robust methods illustrated in this study permits extraction of more information from the same field effort expended in time–consuming small mammal trapping studies that have been subjected to less de tailed analysis. Our work may prove useful to others interested in study of small mammals in oak forest systems in Central and South America. http://ref.scielo.org/kwzw93
Red Gum Devall, M. S. and P. F. Ramp 1992. U. S. Forest Service Research Natural Areas and protection of old growth in the South. Natural Areas Journal. 12(2): 75–85. Much of the old–growth forest in the southern United States is on the national forests. The U.S. Forest Service Research Natural Areas (RNA) Program is one method for protecting old growth at the same time as making it available for scientific studies and educational purposes. This paper discusses the RNA program and describes several old–growth forests in the RNA system: the Red Gum, Overcup Oak, and Green Ash Research Natural Areas, three remnants of virgin forests in the Mississippi River floodplain; the Bee Branch RNA, a disjunct eastern hemlock and beech community in northern Alabama; and the Roaring Branch RNA, an old–growth hardwood and shortleaf pine forest in western Arkansas.  
Red Gum Ramp, P.F. 1990. Ecological assessment of the Red Gum, Overcup Oak and Green Ash Research Natural Areas in the Delta National Forest, Mississippi. Unpublished manuscript for the USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.    
Black Mountain McLeod, D. (1981). Baseline data for hardwood forests in the Black Mountain Research Natural Area including vegetation patterns. Final report to USDA Forest Service, Southeast Experiment Station. Forest Service Project No, FS–SE–1102.    
Black Mountain McLeod, D. (1988). Vegetation patterns, floristics, and environmental relationships in the Black and Craggy Mountains of North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. PhD.   http://www.philipt.com/
Pond Pine no pub found    
Walker Cove Cogbill, C. V. (2005). Historical biogeography of American Beech. Beech Bark Disease: Proceedings of the Beech Bark Disease Symposium. C. A. Evans, Lucas, Jennifer A. and Twery, Mark J. Newtown Square, PA, US. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Northern Research Station. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-331.: p. 16–24.   http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/
Walker Cove Dickison, G. J. (1980). Composition and stand dynamics of an old–growth upper cove hardwood forest in Walker Cove Research Natural Area, Pisgah National Forest, North Carolina.    
Walker Cove Held, M. E. (1983). “Pattern of Beech Regeneration in the East–Central United States.&rduo; Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 110(1): 55-62. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American Beech) reproduces from seed and/or root sprouts. Although seeding must be the mechanism for initial establishment, root sprouting is considered by many researchers to be the main mode of reproduction in this species in certain areas of its range. Eight forested areas within the east–central portion of the range of Fagus grandifolia were selected for study of the environmental conditions related to the occurrence of root sprouts and/or seed–origin individuals. Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis and, stepwise regression analysis were used in this study to examine the relationship between environmental parameters and the reproductive activity in this species. Over the range of Fagus grandifolia, root sprouting is a mechanism by which this species survives in a forest within an area where environmental parameters are harsh. This study indicates a partial shift from seedling establishment toward a dependence on vegetative reproduction in areas where climate is more severe. Within each forest, however, the exposure of the slope on which a parent beech tree is located is an indicator of the possible origin of the beech juvenile individuals around that mature tree. These results do not preclude the occurrence of either root sprouts or of seed–origin individuals within any site in any area of the range of this species.  
Walker Cove Olano, J. M. and M. W. Palmer (2003). “Stand dynamics of an Appalachian old–growth forest during a severe drought episode.” Forest ecology and management 174(1-3): 139–148. We analyzed data from 19 0.1 ha permanent plots of an old–growth cove forest in Walker Cove Research Natural Area (North Carolina), in order to understand the process affecting old–growth forest dynamics. During the study period (1979–1994) every stem with DBH larger than 5 cm was identified to species level and DBH was measured every 5 years. Between 1984 and 1989 censuses, a severe drought occurred in the forest. In the studied period, basal area proportions among dominant tree species changed: Acer saccharum and Aesculus flava showed significant increases, whereas Tilia americana and Fagus grandifolia decreased. Recruitment increased significantly during the study period. Mortality had a maximum during drought, having an U–shaped pattern as a function of diameter for T. americana and F. grandifolia and an L–shaped pattern for A. saccharum and A. flava. Diameter growth was negatively related to mortality, and was a stronger predictor of mortality than DBH. Surprisingly, diameter growth was highest during the drought. This pattern was constant among the dominant species, but varied considerably across the different size classes, with growth increases in the smaller size classes, but growth reduction for the largest size class. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Source: GEOBASE
Walker Cove Runkle, J. R. (1981). “Gap Regeneration in Some Old–growth Forests of the Eastern United States.” Ecology 62(4): 1041–1051. Tree replacement in gaps was studied in old–growth mesic forest stands in western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and the southern Appalachian Mountains. Predictions of future overstory composition, based on sapling composition in small gaps (average 200 m2), were compared to current canopy composition. Both Markov analyses and simple average sapling composition of gaps support the hypotheses that regeneration in small gaps was sufficient to perpetuate the current canopy species composition of the stands studied. In some cases the saplings most likely to replace a dead canopy tree were of the same species. In other cases, especially low–diversity beech–sugar maple stands, each species seemed to enhance significantly the success of the other species.  
Walker Cove Runkle, J. R. (1998). “Changes in southern Appalachian canopy tree gaps sampled thrice.” Ecology 79(5): 1768–1780. Species responses to disturbance (mortality of dominant individuals within a community) influence many aspects of that ecological community. To trace the responses of vegetation to one particular type of disturbance, I sampled vegetation in 250 canopy gaps in 1976/1977, 1983, and 1990/1991. These gaps were located in three sites in the southern Appalachians of eastern North America: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Walker Cove Research Natural Area, and Joyce Kilmer Wilderness Area. Each gap was sampled thrice for sapling composition (stems greater than or equal to 1 cm in diameter at breast height). Additional measurements included the extension growth of border trees into the gap, recent mortality rates of border trees, deterioration rates of gas makers that had been standing dead in earlier samples, and the composition of understory plots. The mean extension (branch) growth of border trees was 12 cm/yr, with slower growth by longer branches. Gap makers that had been tall stumps tended to deteriorate, although 35% stayed intact over the 14 yr of the study. Border–tree mortality averaged 0.60%/yr, with higher rates for larger stems and with much interspecific variation. Stem density of saplings in gaps increased during the first sampling interval and decreased during the second as self-thinning counteracted increased establishment. Basal area increased during both sampling intervals. The death of border trees increased basal area per unit gap area. The four main species (Acer saccharum, Tsuga canadensis, Fagus grandifolia, and Halesia carolina) showed different patterns of correlation to gap size and age. Species in general showed more correlations with gap age for the first sample than afterwards; gap size was more consistently related to species importance. Species patterns also were affected by the presence or absence of border-tree mortality. The stands studied seem nearly at equilibrium. Some small changes are likely to occur, but the species present dominated all size classes: gap saplings, border trees, other canopy trees not related to gaps, and understory saplings. Species differed in their relative growth rates in the understory and in gaps of different sizes. Species also differed in their survival rates in the understory and in the canopy. Source: WOS
Walker Cove Runkle, J. R. (2000). “Canopy Tree Turnover in Old-Growth Mesic Forests of Eastern North America.” Ecology 81(2): 554–567. I studied the dynamic nature of old–growth, eastern U.S. forests by addressing the following questions: (1) How much do stand density, basal area, and size structure vary over time within several old–growth remnants? (2) How do mortality and growth rates vary with stem size? (3) How much does the importance of individual species vary over time and space? (4) At what rate do snags and stumps form and deteriorate? In 1990–1991, I resampled canopy stems within several old-growth remnants in the southern Appalachians, in Hueston Woods State Park, Ohio, and in the Tionesta Scenic and Research Natural Areas, Pennsylvania. I had previously sampled those sites in 1976–1977 using the point–centered quarter method. I remeasured the same trees and measured new trees if the old ones had died or if a new stem closer to the point than the old stem for that quarter had grown to > 25 cm in diameter at breast height. Density and basal area changes were small. Density changes equaled –0.33%, –0.52%, and 0.00%/yr for the southern Appalachians, Hueston Woods, and Tionesta sites, respectively. Corresponding basal–area changes were 0.03%, –0.22%, and 0.45%/yr. Mortality increased consistently with stem size in all three areas. However, growth rates of smaller stems more than compensated for the higher mortality rates of larger stems, so that overall stem size increased between samples. Most species changed little in relative density or basal area. Overall Fagus showed the largest changes between samples, with a small decrease in the southern Appalachians, a larger decrease in Hueston Woods, and an increase in Tionesta. Trees usually died standing, breaking off at a variety of heights. For example, only 6–27% of trees that died were uprooted, depending on region, whereas 16–31% broke at a height of > 16 m. Total snag densities were 15–18 snags/ha. In general these stands were marked by slow changes toward fewer, larger stems, even after centuries in which no major disturbances had occurred. However, changes in pathogens, climate, and atmospheric chemistry could change these trends in the future.  
Walker Cove Runkle, J. R. and T. C. Yetter (1987). “Treefalls Revisited: Gap Dynamics in the Southern Appalachians.” Ecology 68(2): 417–424. In 1976-1977, 284 gaps (canopy–opening sizes 1–1490 m∧2) were sampled (age, size, species composition) from old–growth mesic forests in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Joyce Kilmer Wilderness Area and Walker Cove Research Natural Area. In 1983, the woody vegetation (stems @>1 cm dbh) of 273 of these gaps was resampled, rates of gap closure by canopy tree branch growth and sapling height growth were estimated, and incidences of disturbances occurring since 1976–1977 were noted. The average yearly crown extension growth rate was 18 cm/yr, with much variation among species and individuals. Some individual crowns grew into the canopy opening as much as 4 m in the 7 yr. Saplings grew an average of 30 cm/yr in height, again with much variation. Overall, taller saplings grew somewhat faster than smaller ones and saplings in large gaps grew faster than those in small gaps. These two rates of gap closure together suggest that most saplings will require two or more gap episodes to reach the forest canopy. For woody vegetation, basal area per unit gap area was originally highest in small gaps, though it increased between sampling dates most in large gaps. Stem density had been highest in small old gaps, but decreased the most in old gaps. Tsuga canadensis, Fagus grandifolia, Acer saccharum, and Halesia carolina were the most important species in the gaps studied. Most species did not change in relative density or dominance between the two sampling dates and showed no significant correlations between those parameters and gap size and age. Overall, Tsuga and Fagus decreased and Acer saccharum increased in importance. High rates of repeat disturbance favor species able to grow in intermediate light levels and to survive several periods of suppression before reaching the canopy.  
Tiak Hoagland, B. W. and N. A. McCarty (2009). “Composition and structure of bottomland forest vegetation at the Tiak Research Natural Area, McCurtain County, Oklahoma.” Oklahoma Native Plant Record 9(1).    
Baño de Oro Weaver, P. (1997). “Magnolia splenderla Urban Magnoliaceae Magnolia family.” SO–ITF–SM–80.   http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/
Baño de Oro Weaver, P. L. (2011). “El Toro Wilderness, Luqillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico.”   http://www.fs.fed.us/
Baño de Oro Weaver, P. L. and S. Southern Forest Experiment (1994). Baño de Oro Natural Area, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. The purpose of the report is to compile relevant environmental information on the Baño de Oro Research Natural Area (Baño de Oro) in Puerto Rico. Because research in the Luquillo Mountains has been extensive, much of the data was derived from published sources. Original inventories of fauna and flora, however, have been included to complement other information. Source: GEOREF
Guilliard Lake no pub found    
Lake Wambaw Swamp no pub found    
Cross Timbers Quinn, W. J. 1996. A study of the vegetation of the Western Cross Timbers Research Natural Area. USDA/Forest Service Technical Paper, pp. 1–30.    
Mill Creek Cove Mohlenbrock, R. H. (1992). MILL CREEK COVE, TEXAS, AMER MUSEUM NAT HISTORY: 62–64. Discusses the many types of flora and fauna that can be found in Mill Creek Cove. The cove is located in the Sabine National Forest in southeastern Texas. The extent of virgin forest in the region; Description of Mill Creek Cove’s climax beech–southern magnolia forest. Source: WESW
Mill Creek Cove Quinn, W. J. 1998. A study of the vegetation of the Mill Creek Cove Research Natural Area. USDA/Forest Service Technical Paper, pp. 1–71.    
Little Laurel Run Rawinski, T. J. F., G.P.; Judge, F.V. (1994). Forest vegetation of the Ramsey’s Draft and Little Laurel Run Research Natural Areas, Virginia: Baseline ecological monitoring and classification. Richmond, VA, Virginia Department of Conservation and Heritage, Division of Natural Heritage    
Ramsey’s Draft Breil, D. A. (1973). “Two Bryophytes New to Virginia.” The Bryologist 76(2): 315. Moerkia hibernica and Buxbaumia subcylindrica are reported as new to Virginia.  
Ramsey’s Draft Fansler, W. W. (1984). A floristic study of Ramsey’s Draft Wilderness Area, Augusta County, Virginia.    
Ramsey’s Draft Lesure, F. G. (1982). Geochemical survey of the Ramseys Draft Addition, Augusta and Highland counties, Virginia, U. S. Geological Survey   Source: GEOREF
Ramsey’s Draft Lesure, F. G. (1982). Geologic map of the Ramseys Draft Addition, Augusta and Highland counties, Virginia, U. S. Geological Survey   Source: GEOREF
Ramsey’s Draft Lesure, F. G., et al. (1977). “Mineral resources of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness study area, Augusta County, Virginia.” U. S. geological survey bulletin   Source: GEOREF
Ramsey’s Draft Lesure, F. G. and P. C. Mory (1981). “Mineral–resource studies in the Ramseys Draft Addition, Virginia-West Virginia.” U. S. geological survey professional paper.   Source: GEOREF
Ramsey’s Draft Lesure, F. G. and P. C. Mory (1982). Mineral resource potential map of the Ramseys Draft Addition, Augusta and Highland counties, Virginia, U. S. Geological Survey.   Source: GEOREF
Ramsey’s Draft Lesure, F. G. and J. M. Motooka (1979). “Possible stratiform–copper occurrence in Devonian rocks in Virginia.” U. s. geological survey professional paper.   Source: GEOREF
Ramsey’s Draft Lesure, F. G. and J. M. Motooka (1980). “Possible stratiform-copper occurrence Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study area, Augusta County, Virginia.” Southeastern geology 21(3): 227–238.   Source: GEOREF
Ramsey’s Draft Marsh, S. P., et al. (1984). “Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and addition, Virginia.” U. S. geological survey professional paper: 1033–1034. Mineral–resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red–bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral–resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low–grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential. Source: SCOPUS
Ramsey’s Draft Motooka, C. L., et al. (1981). “Analyses and descriptions of geochemical samples, Ramseys Draft wilderness study area and addition, Augusta and Highland counties, Virginia.” Open–file report – u. s. geological survey.   Source: GEOREF
Ramsey’s Draft Rawinski, T. J. F., G.P.; Judge, F.V. (1994). Forest vegetation of the Ramsey’s Draft and Little Laurel Run Research Natural Areas, Virginia: Baseline ecological monitoring and classification. Richmond, VA, Virginia Department of Conservation and Heritage, Division of Natural Heritage.    
Ramsey’s Draft Stevens, G. C. (1986). “Dissection of the Species–Area Relationship Among Wood–Boring Insects and Their Host Plants.” The American Naturalist 128(1): 35–46. The species–area relationship between wood–boring insects and the geographic range of their host plants is derived from the tendency for wide–ranging plants to be a part of more wood–boring insect communities than plants with smaller geographic ranges. In contrast to the expectation of the area–per se hypothesis, plants in a given forest that have large geographic ranges do not show richer wood-boring insect faunas than co–occurring plants with small ranges. The passive–sampling hypothesis can also be excluded because sampling differences do not account for the pattern. Only the habitat–heterogeneity explanation for the species–area relationship is consistent with the data and analyses presented.  
Ramsey’s Draft Stewart, R. E. (1956). “Ecological Study of Ruffed Grouse Broods in Virginia.” The Auk 73(1): 33–41.    
Ramsey’s Draft United States Forest Service Southern Region. (1988). “Ramseys Draft Wilderness.” Ramseys draft wilderness 1(ma): 63–69.   Source: AGRIS
Right Fork of Elisha Creek Scheff, Robert James, “The Development Of Old–Growth Structural Characteristics In Second–Growth Forests Of The Cumberland Plateau, Kentucky, U.s.a.” (2012). Online Theses and Dissertations. Paper 116.   http://encompass.eku.edu/
Tight Hollow no pub found