Ying OuyangResearch Hydrologist
Mississippi State, MS 39762
Current ResearchPredicting stream discharge, groundwater flow, and sediment/nutrient transport in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV) as affected by agricultural/forest managements and climate change using watershed models such as HSPF and MODFLOW. Performing real-time monitoring of tree sap flux, soil water movement, stream discharge, groundwater flow, and water quantity in the soil-tree-stream-groundwater continuum. Analyzing the long-term meteorological, hydrological, and water quality data using HYDSTRA model and multi-variant statistical methods such as copula, flow/load duration curve, Mann-Kendall test, principal component analysis, and wavelet analysis. Developing and applying STELLA-based models to predict woody biomass production and CO2 emission from bioenergy plantations as affected by soil nutrient and water availability as well as by hydrological and climatic conditions. Developing and applying a STELLA-based model to simultaneously evaluate farm pond water availability and crop irrigation demand in the LMRAV.
- Ph.D. in Soil Science (Soil Physics), 1991
- Oregon State University
- M.S. in Soil Science (Soil Physics), 1987
- Oregon State University
- B.S. in Soil Chenistry , 1982
- South China Agricultural University
- Research Hydrologist, USDA Forest Service, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research
As a Research Hydrologist, my major research responsibilities are to: (1) investigate impacts of forest and agricultural management upon water quality and quantity in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) using computer models (e.g., BASINS-HSPF; MODFLOW/MT3D); (2) develop low flow selection method using minimum flows and levels approach in conjunction with Hydstra model; (3) estimate short-rotation woody biomass production in the soil-tree-atmosphere system using STELLA model; (4) evaluate real-time variations and loads of surface water quality in southeast area using Dynamic Data Driven Application System; (5) detect temporal patterns of watershed hydrology and water quality in response to climate change using Wavelet Analysis; (6) identify most important water quality parameters and environmental variables in forest watershed ecosystems using multivariate statistical analysis (e.g., Principal Component Analysis); (7) assess greenhouse gases (i.e., CO2) flux in forest lands using STELLA model; (8) predict pesticide leaching and loading in agricultural soils; and (9) collaborate with faculty members from Mississippi State University for scientific publications and grant applications as well as serve as graduate student committee members.
- Environmental Scientist , St. Johns River Water Management District of Florida
As an Environmental Scientist in water quality and watershed hydrology, my responsibilities were to apply complex computer models, statistical techniques, computational algorithms, and basin-scale field measurements for analyzing surface, wetland, and ground water quality; investigate groundwater discharge, wetland attenuation, and surface load of contaminants, excess nutrients, and sediments into the St. Johns River (SJR) for the purpose of TMDL refinement; ascertain river flow and groundwater drawdown hydrology for water supply impact study; evaluate water use and nutrient application efficiencies in agricultural ecosystems; prepare reports and manuscripts for peer-reviewed publications; develop research projects and manage contracts; and mentor field workers for surface and ground water sampling. During my 12 years' employment at the St. Johns River Water Management District, I had completed the following major projects: (1) modified watershed models (e.g., BASINS-HSPF, GLEAMS, GIS-WAM) for simulating surface water runoff, sediment/contaminant and Hg transport, and total organic carbon load into the SJR; (2) applied the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to evaluate surface water runoff, sediment transport, and pollutant loading into the Ortega River and Julington Creek for different land use conditions (e.g., agricultural, forested, urbanization, and industrial lands); (3) performed 3D kriging (geostatistical) analysis on spatial and temporal variations of sediment contaminants using ISATIS model; (4) performed multiple regression on water quality monitoring data for N, P, refractory and labile TOC, and water color in related to basin-scale land uses; (5) applied the principal component analysis to evaluate the SJR basin water quality parameters and monitoring networks; (6) quantified groundwater nutrient discharges into the SJR using field data, Visual MODFLOW/MT3D models, and system dynamic model (STELLA); and (7) applied STELLA model for simulating phytoremediation of contaminants that includes the processes of leaf water evapotranspiration, xylem and phloem chemical transport, and root chemical uptake.
- American Institute of Hydrology, Professional Hydrologist (2002—Current)
- American Geophysical Union, Member (1991—Current)
- Soil Science Society of America, Member (1989—Current)
Awards and Recognition
- Recipient of Robert G. Wetzel Award for Water Quality from American Institute of Hydrology, 2021
- The Wetzel award recognizes individuals who have made outstanding contributions in the field of water quality.
- Fellow of Soil Science Society of America, 2019
- Fellow is the highest recognition bestowed by the Soil Science Society of America. Up to 0.3 percent of the Society’s active and emeritus members may be elected Fellow.
- Certificate of appreciation for work as Associate Editor, 2010
- Certificate of appreciation from the American Society of Agronomy/Crop Science Society of America/Soil Science Society of America for work as Associate Editor of the Journal of Environmental Quality for six years (two terms) in 2010.
- Ten years service award, 2009
- Ten years service award by the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida, 2009.
Featured Publications and Products
- Ouyang, Ying . 2021. A flow-weighted approach to generate daily total phosphorus loads in streams based on seasonal loads.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Zhang, Jiaen ; Feng, Gary ; Wan, Yongshan ; Leininger, Theodor D. 2020. A century of precipitation trends in forest lands of the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Parajuli, Prem B.; Feng, Gary ; Leininger, Theodor D.; Wan, Yongshan ; Dash, Padmanava . 2018. Application of Climate Assessment Tool (CAT) to estimate climate variability impacts on nutrient loading from local watersheds.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Jin, Wei ; Leininger, Theodor D.; Feng, Gary ; Yang, Jia . 2021. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resource: A case study for Upper Yazoo River watershed, Mississippi, USA.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Feng, Gary ; Parajuli, Prem ; Leininger, Theodor ; Wan, Yongshan ; Jenkins, Johnie N. 2019. Assessment of surface water quality in the Big Sunflower River Watershed of Mississippi Delta using nonparametric analysis.
- Ouyang, Ying; Leininger, Theodor D.; Moran, Matt. 2013. Impacts of reforestation upon sediment load and water outflow in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed, Mississippi.
- Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jia-En; Cui, Lihua. 2014. Estimating impacts of land use on groundwater quality using trilinear analysis.
- Ouyang, Ying . 2022. A Hybrid of Copula Prediction and Time Series Computation to Estimate Stream Discharge Based on Precipitation Data.
- Ouyang, Ying . 2021. New insights on evapotranspiration and water yield in crop and forest lands under changing climate.
- Ouyang, Ying; Panda, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Feng, Gary. 2022. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Quantity and Quality at Small Scale Watersheds.
- Parajuli, Prem B.; Risal, Avay ; Ouyang, Ying ; Thompson, Anita . 2022. Comparison of SWAT and MODIS Evapotranspiration Data for Multiple Timescales.
- Reeves, Zach ; Panda, Sudhanshu S.; Pilgrim, Zach ; Quyang, Ying ; Grace, Johnny M. II; Amatya, Devendra M. 2022. Groundwater and surface-water contamination susceptibility determination through automated geospatial models using combined modeling approach of DRASTIC and RUSLE.
- Ouyang, Ying . 2022. Impact of forest land use changes on groundwater resources in a basin of lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley over the past 100 years.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Grace, Johnny; Parajuli, Prem B.; Caldwell, Peter V. 2022. Impacts of Multiple Hurricanes and Tropical Storms on Watershed Hydrological Processes in the Florida Panhandle.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Panda, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Feng, Gary . 2022. Linking Climate-Change Impacts on Hydrological Processes and Water Quality to Local Watersheds.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Dev, Satyanarayan ; Grace III, Johnny M.; Amatya, Devendra M.; Leininger, Theodor D. 2022. Simulating biomass production and water use of poplars in a plantation using a STELLA-Based model.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Feng, Gary ; Renninger, Heidi ; Leininger, Theodor D.; Parajuli, Prem ; Grace, Johnny M. 2021. A STELLA-Based Model to Simultaneously Predict Hydrological Processes, N Uptake and Biomass Production in a Eucalyptus Plantation.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Leininger, Theodor D.; Renninger, Heidi ; Gardiner, Emile S.; Samuelson, Lisa . 2021. A model to assess eastern cottonwood water flow using adjusted vapor pressure deficit associated with a climate change imact application.
- Ni, Xiaojing ; Parajuli, Prem B.; Ouyang, Ying ; Dash, Padmanava ; Siegert, Courtney . 2021. Assessing land use change impact on stream discharge and stream water quality in an agricultural watershed.
- Pachepsky, Y. ; Anderson, R. ; Harter, T. ; Jacques, D. ; Jamieson, R. ; Jeong, J. ; Kim, H. ; Lamorski, K. ; Martinez, G. ; Ouyang, Y. ; Shukla, S. ; Wan, Y. ; Zheng, W. ; Zhang, W. . 2021. Fate and transport in environmental quality.
- Risal, Avay ; Parajuli, Prem B.; Ouyang, Ying . 2021. Impact of BMPs on water quality: A case study in Big Sunflower River watershed, Mississippi.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Wan, Yongshan ; Jin, Wei ; Leininger, Theodor D.; Feng, Gary ; Han, Yuguo . 2021. Impact of climate change on groundwater resource in a region with a fast depletion rate: the Mississippi Embayment.
- Ni, Xiaojing ; Parajuli, Prem B.; Ouyang, Ying . 2020. Assessing agriculture conservation practice impacts on groundwater levels at watershed scale.
- Dewey, Janet ; Hatten, Jeff ; Choi, Byoungkoo ; Mangum, Clay ; Ouyang, Ying . 2020. Climate Drivers and Sources of Sediment and Organic Matter Fluxes in Intermittent Rivers and Ephemeral Streams (IRES) of a Subtropical Watershed, USA.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Leininger, Theodor D.; Panda, Sudhanshu S.; Zipperer, Wayne C.; Stroope, Timothy L. 2020. Contributions to groundwater from National Forest lands in the Mississippi Embayment: a century-long simulation.
- Han, Yuguo ; Feng, Gary ; Swaney, Dennis P.; Dentener, Frank ; Koeble, Renate ; Ouyang, Ying ; Gao, Wei . 2020. Global and regional estimation of net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI).
- Yang, Wei ; Feng, Gary ; Read, John J.; Ouyang, Ying ; Han, Jianjun ; Li, Pinfang . 2020. Impact of cover crop on corn–soybean productivity and soil water dynamics under different seasonal rainfall patterns.
- Yang, Jia ; Tao, Bo ; Shi, Hao ; Ouyang, Ying ; Pan, Shufen ; Ren, Wei ; Lu, Chaoqun . 2020. Integration of remote sensing, county-level census, and machine learning for century-long regional cropland distribution data reconstruction.
- Zhang, Jiaen ; Feng, Lifang ; Ouyang, Ying ; Hu, Rongrong ; Xu, Huaqin ; Wang, Jiaxin . 2020. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and fungi in relation to phosphorus availability under different land uses for some latosols from Guangdong, China.
- Wang, Jiaxin ; Lu, Xuening ; Zhang, Jiaen ; Ouyang, Ying ; Wei, Guangchang ; Xiong, Yue . 2020. Rice intercropping with alligator flag (Thalia dealbata): A novel model to produce safe cereal grains while remediating cadmium contaminated paddy soil.
- Risal, Avay ; Parajuli, Prem B.; Dash, Padmanava ; Ouyang, Ying ; Linhoss, Anna . 2020. Sensitivity of hydrology and water quality to variation in land use and land cover data.
- Heng, Tong ; Feng, Gary ; Ouyang, Ying ; He, Xinlin . 2020. The Spatiotemporal Patterns of Climate Asymmetric Warming and Vegetation Activities in an Arid and Semiarid Region.
- Wang, Jiaxin ; Lu, Xuening ; Zhang, Jiaen ; Ouyang, Ying ; Qin, Zhong ; Zhao, Benliang . 2020. Using golden apple snail to mitigate its invasion and improve soil quality: a biocontrol approach.
- Ouyang, Ying ; Jin, Wei ; Grace, Johnny M.; Obalum, Sunday E.; Zipperer, Wayne C.; Huang, Xiaoqing . 2019. Estimating impact of forest land on groundwater recharge in a humid subtropical watershed of the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley.
- Xia, Haoming ; Qin, Yaochen ; Feng, Gary ; Meng, Qingmin ; Cui, Yaoping ; Song, Hongquan ; Ouyang, Ying ; Liu, Gangjun . 2019. Forest phenology dynamics to climate change and topography in a geographic and climate transition zone: The Qinling Mountains in Central China.
- Yang, Jia ; Ren, Wei ; Ouyang, Ying ; Feng, Gary ; Tao, Bo ; Granger, Joshua J.; Poudel, Krishna P. 2019. Projection of 21st century irrigation water requirement across the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley.
- Gao, Fei ; Feng, Gary ; Ouyang, Ying ; Jenkins, Johnie ; Liu, Changming . 2019. Simulating potential weekly stream and pond water available for irrigation in the Big Sunflower River Watershed of Mississippi Delta.
- Ouyang, Ying; Grace, Johnny M.; Zipperer, Wayne C.; Hatten, Jeff; Dewey, Janet. 2018. A simple approach to estimate daily loads of total, refractory, and labile organic carbon from their seasonal loads in a watershed.
- Han, Yuguo ; Feng, Gary ; Ouyang, Ying . 2018. Effects of soil and water conservation practices on runoff, sediment and n utrient losses.
- Parajuli, Prem B.; Jayakody, Priyantha ; Ouyang, Ying . 2018. Evaluation of using remote sensing evapotranspiration data in SWAT.
- Ouyang, Ying; Feng, Gary; Leininger, Theodor D.; Read, John; Jenkins, Johnie N. 2018. Pond and Irrigation Model (PIM): a tool for simultaneously evaluating pond water availability and crop irrigation demand.
- Tang, Qiuxiang ; Feng, Gary ; Fisher, Daniel ; Zhang, Huihui ; Ouyang, Ying ; Adeli, Ardeshir ; Jenkins, Johnie . 2018. Rain water deficit and irrigation demand of major row crops in the Mississippi Delta.
- Feng, Gary ; Ouyang, Ying ; Adeli, Ardeshir ; Read, John ; Jenkins, Johnie . 2018. Rainwater deficit and irrigation demand for row crops in Mississippi Blackland Prairie.
- Zhang, Bangbang; Feng, Gary; Ahuja, Lajpat R.; Kong, Xiangbin; Ouyang, Ying; Adeli, Ardeshir; Jenkins, Johnie N. 2018. Soybean crop-water production functions in a humid region across years and soils determined with APEX model.
- Ouyang, Ying; Paz, Joel O.; Feng, Gary; Read, John J.; Adeli, Ardeshir; Jenkins, Johnie N. 2017. A model to estimate hydrological processes and water budget in an irrigation farm pond.
- Zhou, Zhang; Ouyang, Ying; Li, Yide; Qiu, Zhijun; Moran, Matt. 2017. Estimating impact of rainfall change on hydrological processes in Jianfengling rainforest watershed, China using BASINS-HSPF-CAT modeling system.
- Ouyang, Y. ; Feng, G. ; Parajuli, P.B. . 2017. Estimating impacts of future rainfall change on Stream flow and sediment load in Lower Yazoo River Watershed Using BASINS-HSPF-CAT modeling system.
- Gao, Fei; Feng, Gary; Ouyang, Ying; Wang, Huixiao; Fisher, Daniel; Adeli, Ardeshir; Jenkins, Johnie. 2017. Evaluation of reference evapotranspiration methods in arid, semiarid, and humid regions.
- Zhou, Z.; Ouyang, Y.; Qiu, Z.; Zhou, G.; Lin, M.; Li, Y. 2017. Evidence of climate change impact on stream low flow from the tropical mountain rainforest watershed in Hainan Island, China.
- Ouyang, Ying; Parajuli, Prem B.; Li, Yide; Leininger, Theodor D.; Feng, Gary. 2017. Identify temporal trend of air temperature and its impact on forest stream flow in Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley using wavelet analysis.
- Ouyang, Ying; Xu, Daping; Leininger, Ted; Zhang, Ningnan. 2016. A system dynamic model to estimate hydrological processes and water use in a eucalypt plantation.
- Dakhlalla, Abdullah O.; Parajuli, Prem B.; Ouyang, Ying; Schmitz, Darrel W. 2016. Evaluating the impacts of crop rotations on groundwater storage and recharge in an agricultural watershed.
- Ouyang, Ying. 2016. Identification of temporal patterns of long-term hydrological signals in Lower Mississippi River Basin using wavelet analysis.
- Zhao, Benliang; Zhang, Jia-en; Yan, Wenbin; Kang, Xiaowu; Cheng, Chaogang; Ouyang, Ying. 2016. Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using waste shells of golden apple snail.
- Zhang, Bangbang; Feng, Gary; Read, John J.; Kong, Xiangbin; Ouyang, Ying; Adeli, Ardeshir; Jenkins, Johnie N. 2016. Simulating soybean productivity under rainfed conditions for major soil types using APEX model in East Central Mississippi.
- Feng, Gary; Cobb, Stacy; Abdo, Zaid; Fisher, Daniel K.; Ouyang, Ying; Adeli, Ardeshir; Jenkins, Johnie N. 2016. Trend analysis and forecast of precipitation, reference evapotranspiration, and rainfall deficit in the Blackland Prairie of eastern Mississippi.
- Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jiaen; Leininger, Theodor D.; Frey, Brent R. 2015. A STELLA model to estimate water and nitrogen dynamics in a short-rotation woody crop plantation.
- Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying. 2015. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress.
- Ye, Yanqiong; Zhang, Jia'en; Chen, Lili; Ouyang, Ying; Parajuli, Prem. 2015. Dynamics of ecosystem service values in response to landscape pattern changes from 1995 to 2005 in Guangzhou, Southern China.
- Xu, Hua-qin; Zhang, Jia-en; Ouyang, Ying; Lin, Ling; Quan, Guo-ming; Zhao, Ben-liang; Yu, Jia-yu. 2015. Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil.
- Ouyang, Ying; Leininger, Theodor D.; Moran, Matt. 2015. Estimating effects of reforestation on nitrogen and phosphorus load reductions in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed, Mississippi.
- Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jia-En; Li, Yide; Parajuli, Prem; Feng, Gary. 2015. Impacts of rainfall and air temperature variations due to climate change upon hydrological characteristics: A case study.
- Cui, Lihu; Ouyang, Ying; Yang, Weizhi; Huang, Zhujian; Xu, Qiaoling; Yu, Guangwei. 2015. Removal of nutrients from septic tank effluent with baffle subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.
- Ouyang, Ying; Cui, Lihua; Feng, Gary; Read, John. 2015. Simulating phosphorus removal from a vertical-flow constructed wetland grown with C alternifolius species.
- Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying; Xu, Huaqin. 2014. Impact of simulated acid rain on trace metals and aluminum leaching in latosol from Guangdong Province, China.
- Marion, Daniel A.; Sun, Ge; Caldwell, Peter V.; Miniat, Chelcy F.; Ouyang, Ying; Amatya, Devendra M.; Clinton, Barton D.; Conrads, Paul A.; Gull Laird, Shelby; Dai, Zhaohua; Clingenpeel, J. Alan; Liu, Yonqiang; Roehl, Edwin A., Jr..; Moore Myers, Jennifer A.; Trettin, Carl. 2014. Managing forest water quantity and quality under climate change.
- Parajuli, B.P.; Jayakody, P.; Sassenrath, G.F.; Ouyang, Y.; Pote, J.W. 2013. Assessing the impacts of crop-rotation and tillage on crop yields and sediment yield using a modeling approach.
- Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jia-En; Parajuli, Prem. 2013. Characterization of shallow groundwater quality in the Lower St. Johns River Basin: a case study.
- Ouyang, Ying. 2013. Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality.
- Ouyang, Ying; Parajuli, Prem B.; Marion, Daniel A. 2013. Estimation of surface water quality in a Yazoo River tributary using the duration curve and recurrence interval approach.
- Cui, Lihua; Ouyang, Ying; Gu, Wenjie; Yang, Weozhi; Xu, Qiaoling. 2013. Evaluation of nutrient removal efficiency and microbial enzyme activity in a baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetland system.
- Zhang, Jia-En; Quan, Guo-Ming; Huang, Zhao-Xiang; Luo, Shi-Ming; Ouyang, Ying. 2013. Evidence of duck activity induced anatomical structure change and lodging resistance of rice plant.
- Ouyang, Ying; Leininger, Theodor D.; Hatten, Jeff. 2013. Real-time estimation of TP load in a Mississippi Delta Stream using a dynamic data driven application system.
- Parajuli, Prem B.; Sassenrath, Gretchen F.; Ouyang, Ying. 2013. Relationships between water table and model simulated ET.
- Liang, Kiang; Zhang, Jia-en; Fang, Li; Zaho, Benliang; Luo, Mingzhu; Parajuli, Prem; Ouyang, Ying . 2013. The biological control of Pomacea canaliculata population by rice-duck mutualism in paddy fields.
- Parajuli, Prem B.; Ouyang, Ying. 2013. Watershed-scale hydrological modeling methods and applications.
- Ouyang, Ying; Leininger, Theodor D.; Hatten, Jeff; Parajuli, Prem B. 2012. A STELLA model to estimate soil CO2 emissions from a short-rotation woody crop.
- Ouyang, Ying. 2012. Designing a dynamic data driven application system for estimating real-time load of dissolved organic carbon in a river.
- Ouyang, Ying. 2012. Estimation of Shallow Groundwater Discharge and Nutrient Load into a River.
- Ouyang, Ying; Higman, John; Hatten, Jeff. 2012. Estimation of dynamic load of mercury in a river with BASINS-HSPF model.
- Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jia-En. 2012. Quantification of Shallow Groundwater Nutrient Dynamics in Septic Areas.
- Cui, Lihua; Feng, Jigkun; Ouyang, Ying; Deng, Peiwen. 2012. Removal of Nutrients from Septic Effluent with Re-circulated Hybrid Tidal Flow Constructed Wetland.
- Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying; Xu, Huaqin. 2012. Responses of Earthworm to Aluminum Toxicity in Latosol.
- Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jia-En; Cui, Li Hua; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter. 2012. Simulating the Transport and Fate of Trifluralin in Soil.
- Zhang, Jia-En; Ouyang, Ying; Huang, Zhao-Xiang Huang; Quan, Guo-Ming. 2011. Dynamic Emission of CH4 from a Rice-Duck Farming Ecosystem.
- Estimating impacts of extreme rainfall events for local watersheds (2018)
- Many future climate scenarios project impacts of climate variability on water quantity and quality. However, these scenarios may not be accurate and do not have flexibility for local and small watershed analyses. They are not able to answer questions such as: what will happen to stream flow, water quality, and water availability for a given local watershed if extreme rainfall events such as very dry summers and wet winters occur in the next ten years? This information is crucial to state and local water resource managers and stakeholders for implementing adaptive management practices on crop and forest lands.
- Estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated crop land: A tool to conserve groundwater resources in Mississippi (2017)
- Groundwater withdrawals in the Mississippi Delta region and around the nation have increased dramatically since the last century, resulting in the depletion of water resources from subsurface aquifers. Although more on-farm water storage ponds have been constructed in recent years to mitigate groundwater depletion in Mississippi, little effort has been devoted to addressing the question of how many hectares (1 hectare = 2.47 acres) of crop land can be irrigated with water from one hectare of agricultural pond. Forest Service scientists developed a computer modeling tool to address this need.